Stages levels of Second Language Acquisition Paper ASSIGNMENT 1- Reflection and Application of Learning Consider how the content information and readings

Stages levels of Second Language Acquisition Paper ASSIGNMENT 1- Reflection and Application of Learning

Consider how the content information and readings from this Module may affect your teaching. Using information from this Module, share in your reflective discussion post how each of the following connects to accomplished teaching and your professional practice.

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What does the 1990 ESOL Agreement (Consent Decree) require? Based on these requirements, describe your roles and responsibilities to ELLs and their families.
How does your understanding of the effects of culture and ethnicity impact classroom environment?
How can you assist ELLs students and their families regarding their rights under state and federal laws and regulations?

ASSIGNMENT 2-

WATCH VIDEO(S): EVERY TEACHER – AN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER – THE STAGES/LEVELS OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.

Elementary – Part 1:

Elementary – Part 2:

Secondary:

Jim Cummins realized that language learners acquire Basic Interpersonal Communications skills (BICS) in 1-2 years, but the Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) may take as many as 5-7 years.

Read the article: BICS and CALP Empirical and Theoretical Status of the Distinction.

The distinction between Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) was introduced by Cummins (1979, 1981a) in order to draw educators’ attention to the timelines and challenges that second language learners encounter as they attempt to catch up to their peers in academic aspects of the school language. BICS refers to conversational fluency in a language while CALP refers to students’ ability to understand and express, in both oral and written modes, concepts and ideas that are relevant to success in school. You will learn about BICS and CALP in the article and how these skills are important for second language learners.

Step 1Read these 3 Scenarios of ELLs in content area classrooms from the Chicago Public Schools Office of Language and Culture Education. (you can read the full article here if you wish: Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL)

Step 2Complete a Problem-Solution chart for one of the scenarios in the article. List several problems faced by the ELL as well as the causes and effects showing BICS and CALP. You should also list issues needing attention by the teacher. Offer several solutions for both the student and the teacher.

Copy the Problem Solution chart into a Word document to upload for this assignment. ESOL Methods: Module 1, Learning Lab 2
PROBLEM – SOLUTION CHART
Scenario #:
PROBLEM
Problem:
Cause:
Effect:
Problem:
Cause:
Effect:
Problem:
Cause:
Effect:
TEACHER SOLUTION
STUDENT SOLUTION
© 2002 by the Board of Education of the City of Chicago
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
It is the policy of the Board of Board of Education of the City of Chicago not to discriminate on the basis of race, color,
creed, national origin, religion, age, handicap unrelated to ability, or sex in its educational program or employment
policies or practices.
Inquiries concerning the application of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the regulations
promulgated thereunder concerning sex discrimination should be referred to the Title IX Coordinator, Chicago Public
Schools, City of Chicago, 125 S. Clark St., 11th floor, Chicago, Illinois 60603.
The contents of this curriculum guide were developed under a grant from the Department of Education. However,
these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and one should not assume
endorsement by the Federal Government.
Theoretical
Foundations
for Teaching English as a Second Language
An ESL Training Module
Chicago Public Schools
Office of Language and Cultural Education
Irene Brosnahan, Ph.D.
Katarzyna Witkowska-Stadnik, Ph.D.
Illinois State University
City of Chicago
Richard M. Daley
Mayor
Chicago Board of Education
Michael W. Scott, President
Avis LaVelle , Vice President
Members:
Norman R. Bobins
Tariq H. Butt, M.D.
Michael N. Mayo
Clare M. Munana
Gene R. Saffold
Chicago Public Schools
Arne Duncan
Chief Executive Officer
Barbara Eason-Watkins, Ed.D.
Chief Education Officer
Armando M. Almendarez
Deputy Chief Education Officer
OFFICE OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL EDUCATION
Manuel J. Medina, Officer
Panagiota (Pat) Fassos, ESL Project Director
Marsha Santelli, ESL Project Consultant
Â
Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
I.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
II.
Relevance of the Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL to the . . . . . .
Teaching of English Language Learners
4
III.
Goals of the Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
IV.
Topics in Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
A. Introduction to Theories of Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1. Structural Theory of Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Cognitive Theory of Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Communicative Theory of Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
11
15
B. Introduction to Theories of Language Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
17
1. Behavioristic Theory of Language Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Cognitive Theory of Language Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Humanistic Approach to Language Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
20
22
C. Introduction to Curricular Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
1. Content-Based Curricular Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Whole-Language Curricular Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
30
V.
Tips for Teachers for Modifying Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
VI.
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
VII.
Presentation Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
VIII.
Activities, Answer Key and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
IX.
Appendix: Handouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
X.
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
XI.
Biodata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
Theoretical Foundations of Teaching English as a Second Language
I.
INTRODUCTION
The teaching of a second or foreign language to speakers of another language has had
a long tradition, dating from the Classical Greek period to modern times. In the span of
two thousand years, language teaching approaches and methods have undergone
shifts in objectives. Sometimes the goal of teaching a foreign language has been to
teach it so that students could read it, sometimes so that they could study the culture of
the country where the language is spoken, and sometimes so that they could use it to
communicate with speakers of that language.
Within the United States, language teaching used to be discussed mostly with reference
to teaching foreign languages to American students. In recent decades, however, the
teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) has become equally, if not more,
prominent in the education system. With the influx of immigrants form all parts of the
world, ESL is now taught in all educationa l contexts – Pre-K-12, college, intensive,
workplace, and community programs.
The growing needs for teaching ESL have been accompanied by developments in
language theory, language learning theory, and a variety of curricular approaches. ESL
teachers have benefited from research into the nature of language by gaining a better
understanding of how language works and how it is used. They have also learned a
great deal about language learners by realizing that there are similarities and
differences between learning a first language and a second language and that second
language learners have special language, cultural, and individual problems and goals.
In addition, ESL teachers have also benefited from learning what works best in the
classroom in terms of choosing teaching materials and activities.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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II.
Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
RELEVANCE OF THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS TO THE TEACHING OF
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
The change in student populations in the U.S. makes it imperative for every teacher to
understand the nature of difficulties that English Language Learners (ELLs) face in the
American classroom. To begin with, teachers need to understand what language is.
What does it mean to know a language? Knowing a language involves more than just
knowing vocabulary and grammar.
It also means knowing how to use language to
achieve a specific communicative function in its cultural context. Mainstream teachers
need to realize that all languages are equally systematic, complex, and capable of
expressing a whole range of ideas, but that different languages express ideas
differently.
Besides understanding what language is, mainstream teachers also need to understand
the complexities of learning a second language.
They need to understand the
language learning process so that they can interpret the progress and learning
problems of ELLs.
They need to consider what kind of instructional method or
technique, teaching materials and classroom environment can best help the learner to
acquire the language and how to use these insights in teaching ELLs in the mainstream
classroom.
In addition, mainstream teachers need to understand the instructional
needs of individual ELLs in terms of their language and cultural background, cognitive
learning styles, motivation, and personality characteristics.
Finally, given the fact that ELLs must also learn the content material of the school
curriculum, mainstream teachers need to know how the special language needs of the
ELLs should be considered in the way that the content is presented to them.
III. GOALS OF THE MODULE
This module presents the theoretical foundations of teaching ESL not in a lecture
format, but in the form of either an activity or an illustration, followed by a discussion of
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
the theory underlying the activity/illustration.
Through this method of presentation,
mainstream teachers will gain an understanding of:
• major viewpoints on the nature of language
• different theoretical perspectives on language learning
• various perspectives on curricular theories and goals
This kind of understanding will enable these teachers to address the ELLs’ needs in
their classroom better by learning:
• why they need to present content materials to ELLs in a way different from
those used with native speakers of English.
• why they need to consider the ELLs’ language background and needs in
choosing specific materials and teaching techniques.
• why ELLs from different cultures may respond to what is happening in the
classroom in different ways.
• why ELLs, just like English-speaking students, benefit from activities that
address the use of their individual learning styles and strategies.
• why ELLs, just like English-speaking students, benefit from activities that make
best use of the various types of abilities that these ELLs bring to their learning.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
IV. TOPICS IN THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF TEACHING ESL
A. Introduction to Theories of Language
In considering the theoretical foundations of teaching ESL, one of the most important
issues is the nature of language. A number of theories of language have been proposed
in the last century. Among these, the ones that are most relevant to language teaching
are structural, cognitive and communicative theories. The structural view of
language looks at language as a system of structurally related ele ments for conveying
meaning. In other words, language is built of layers of units – phonological (related to
speech sounds), morphological (related to word formation) and syntactic (related to
combinations of words in larger units). The cognitive view of language defines language
as an internalized system of rules rather than as a set of units and patterns. More
specifically this view of language assumes that speakers of a given language have
intuitive knowledge of language rules which enable them to make judgments about the
relationships between meaning and form and to create and understand an infinite
number of sentences using a finite number of rules. The communicative view of
language extends the scope of language to include the context of language use. In
particular, it maintains that language is not merely a set of internalized rules, but that an
adequate theory of language must also include the communicative functions of
language.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
1. Structural Theory of Language
As an illustration of the structural theory of language, consider the following examples.
a. Activity 1
Activity 1
Given
Giventhe
thefollowing
followingsentence
sentencepattern,
pattern,which
whichof
ofthe
thegroups
groupsof
oflisted
listedwords
wordswould
wouldfit
fit
into
which
slot?
intowhich slot?
• Mary’s generous boss has recently given her a raise.
• Mary’s _________ _______ has ________ ___________ her a _________.
(1)
(2)
(3)
a. sister
friend
father
neighbor
b. close
protective
friendly
silly
c. promised
made
showed
paid
e. frequently
often
rarely
regularly
f.
g. the
some
any
an
at
in
from
on
(4)
(5)
d. sandwich
dress
compliment
present
Activity 2
In the following sentence pattern, decide which group(s) of words could replace
which of the two nonsense words.
• An excited zimbie approached the spleecky corner.
a. youngster
girl
bystander
businessman
b. dangerous
dark
quiet
crowded
c. left
saw
visited
passed
Office of Language and Cultural Education
d. quickly
efficiently
lazily
seriously
7
Â
Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
You probably found these tasks very easy and the answers obvious. The reason you
had no difficulty with this exercise is that English, and language in general, is highly
structured. This view of language, called structuralism, appeared in the development of
American linguistics beginning with Leonard Bloomfield’s book in 1933 and flourished in
the 1940s and 1950s. It is based on the concept that language can be described in
terms of units and combinations.
These combinations are patterned in that each
contains slots or positions that are filled by specific kinds of words.
The above
examples illustrate such combinations on the level of a sentence.
However, the concept of structuralism includes more than just sentence patterns. It
also includes units and combinations of sounds and word parts.
Activity 3
i. Activity 3
Here is an example of how words are formed in a patterned manner:
Here is an example of how words are formed in a patterned manner:
educate
educate
educator
educator
educators
educators
education
education
reeducate
reeducate
educational
educational
educationally
educationally
educating
educating
educated
educated
reeducated
reeducated
uneducated
uneducated
Following the examples above, try to create as many words as you can by using act
as the main part of the word.
As you can see, the formation of words is also based on structural principles. Each
word contains at least a main part, called root or stem by linguists with one or more
added parts, affixes, which can be a prefix (e.g. re-educate) or suffix (e.g. educat-ion-ally), which must occur in a particular order.
Each of these parts is considered the
smallest meaningful bit of the language, called a morpheme, and words are made up of
one or more morphemes.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
Similarly, the sounds that make up words also follow particular patterns. These sounds,
or phonemes, constitute the smallest building blocks of the language. For example, in
the word pit, there are three phonemes: [p]+[I]+[t]1. These phonemes are a part of the
distinctive sound units of the sound system of the language.
The phonemes of a
language form a system of contrasts so that pit can be contrasted with bit, pat, pin.
pit
pit
pit
bit
pat
pin
In addition, the phonemes of a language follow a certain set of combination rules, and
so some phonemes cannot co-occur in a given language and/or they cannot occur in a
certain position within a word. For example, in Spanish, the sequences sp, st, sk do not
occur at the beginning of a word, but they do in English. In Chinese and Japanese,
consonants do not occur together without vowels in between as they do in English. On
the other hand, for example, in Polish, unlike in English, a word can begin with tl as in
tlen “oxygen.”
1
these are phonetic symbols used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent consistent sound units. In
English, as in other languages, phonetic symbols can be spelled with different letters, for example, in English, [k]
represents the sound in car, pick, chorus, etc
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
Activity 4
Consider the following question: Which of the consonant clusters listed below can
occur at the beginning of English words, which can occur at the end of English
words, and which cannot occur at either end of English words?
[spl]
[str]
[stl]
[tls]
[pr]
[rp]
[sm]
[ml]
[sn]
[zk]
[bl]
[mp]
[rst]
As you can see, in the structuralist view, language is analyzed on three levels—sound
level (phonology), word level (morphology), and phrase and sentence level (syntax).
The language is described in terms of interlocking linguistic levels of building blocks,
beginning with the smallest units (phonemes) which make up meaningful units
(morphemes) which combine to form words, and in turn, words make up phrases and
sentences. An important concept of structuralism is that language is speech; therefore,
their analysis begins with the sound system and moves to words and sentences.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
2. Cognitive Theory of Language
The cognitive view of language can be captured with the following examples.
Activity 5
a. Activity 5
Try to decide on the possible meanings of the following sentences. Paraphrase
each sentence to show its various meanings.
1. Visiting relatives can be a nuisance.
2. Terry loves his wife and so do I.
3. The chicken is ready to eat.
4. The boy saw the man with a telescope.
Since these sentences each have two possible meanings, structural patterns cannot
account for their ambiguities.
Activity 6
Now notice the relationship between the following pairs of sentences:
1. The puppy found the child.
The child was found by the puppy.
2. The boy wrote the senator a letter.
The boy wrote a letter to the senator.
3. The bride came down the aisle.
Down the aisle came the bride.
4. The tailor cut the fabric with a pair of scissors
With a pair of scissors, the tailor cut the fabric.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
Even though the structural patterns in the sentences in each pair are different, the
sentences can be interpreted as having the same meaning.
In other words, the
structural pattern approach is again inadequate for describing such phenomena.
For these reasons, the structural view of language came under criticism in the late
1950s. In 1957, Noam Chomsky published a book called Syntactic Structures, in which
he claimed that language is more than patterns, units, and combinations. An adequate
description of a language should also include relationships between sentences. For
example, he believed that sentences such as statements and questions, positive
sentences and negative sentences, active and passive sentences should be explicitly
accounted for.
To account for this kind of a relationship, he proposed a two-level
analysis of sentences, rather than describing sentences as being made up of a series of
syntactic slots. With this two-level approach, called transformational grammar, he was
able to account for not only those sentence relationships mentioned above, but also
such phenomena as ambiguities and paraphrases.
Chomsky proposed that each
sentence should be analyzed on two levels: with an abstract deep structure that
accounts for its meaning and a surface structure that accounts for its form. In the case
of an ambiguous sentence with two meanings, for example, there are two deep
structures realized as the same surface form. On the other hand, paraphrases are
sentences with one deep structure and more than one form.
In a further development of his theory (1965), Chomsky claimed that a theory of
language must also explain the creative and intuitive aspects of language.
For
example, it must account for the speaker’s ability to distinguish grammatically
acceptable sentences from those that are not acceptable.
Office of Language and Cultural Education
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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching ESL
Activity 7
Try to decide which of the following sentences are grammatically acceptable and
which are not:
1. John is difficult to love.
2. It is difficult to love John.
3. John is anxious to go.
4. It is anxious to go John.
5. The food sickened me.
6. The milk illed me too.
7. The girl wrote a check.
8. The dog wrote a check.
9. The book wrote a check.
According to Chomsky, a theory of language must be able to account for the speaker’s
knowledge and ability to make grammatical judgments and to distinguish between form
and meaning. His famous example:
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
demonstrates that a sentence may be grammatically correct and yet be meaningless.
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