Packed Tubular Reactors and Sequential Batch Reactors Paper Critically illustrate the following with suitable justification? Critically illustrate the fol

Packed Tubular Reactors and Sequential Batch Reactors Paper Critically illustrate the following with suitable justification? Critically illustrate the following with suitable justification: a) Design of Packed tubular reactors and its applications (Minimum 6 pages ) b) Sequential Batch Reactors [SBR] for biological wastewater treatment and novel techniques (Minimum 6 pages ) c) Recent development in Analysis and Design of Three Phase Catalytic Reactors (Minimum 6 pages ) Note : The answer will be Paraphraseminimum 6 pages for Q A ,6 pages for Q B & 6 pages for Q CProvide Some figures/ pictures with referenceHarvard Referencing should be followed for both in-text and listing references. AN INTRODUCTION TO
The University of Wisconsin
New York Chichester
Brisbane Toronto
To my family:
Parents, Wife, and Daughters
Copyright © 1977, by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond
that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States
Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information
should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:
Hill, Charles G
1937An introduction to chemical engineering kinetics
and reactor design.
Bibliography: p.
Includes indexes.
1. Chemical reaction, Rate of. 2. Chemical
reactors—Design and construction. I. Title.
ISBN 0-471-39609-5
Printed in the United States of America
20 19
Board of Advisors, Engineering
A. H-S, Ang
University of Illinois
Civil Engineering—Systems and Probability
Donald S. Berry
Northwestern University
Transportation Engineering
James Gere
Stanford University
Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics
J. Stuart Hunter
Princeton University
Engineering Statistics
T. William Lambe
R. V. Whitman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Civil Engineering—Soil Mechanics
Perry L. McCarty
Stanford University
Environmental Engineering
Don T. Phillips
Texas A & M
Industrial Engineering
Dale Rudd
University of Wisconsin
Chemical Engineering
Robert F. Steidel, Jr,
University of California—Berkeley
Mechanical Engineering
R. N. White
Cornell University
Civil Engineering—Structures
One feature that distinguishes the education of the chemical engineer from that of
other engineers is an exposure to the basic concepts of chemical reaction kinetics
and chemical reactor design. This textbook provides a judicious introductory level
overview of these subjects. Emphasis is placed on the aspects of chemical kinetics
and material and energy balances that form the foundation for the practice of reactor
The text is designed as a teaching instrument. It can be used to introduce the novice
to chemical kinetics and reactor design and to guide him until he understands the
fundamentals well enough to read both articles in the literature and more advanced
texts with understanding. Because the chemical engineer who practices reactor
design must have more than a nodding acquaintance with the chemical aspects of
reaction kinetics, a significant portion of this textbook is devoted to this subject.
The modern chemical process industry, which has played a significant role in the
development of our technology-based society, has evolved because the engineer has
been able to commercialize the laboratory discoveries of the scientist. To carry out
the necessary scale-up procedures safely and economically, the reactor designer must
have a sound knowledge of the chemistry involved. Modern introductory courses in
physical chemistry usually do not provide the breadth or the in-depth treatment of
reaction kinetics that is required by the chemical engineer who is faced with a reactor
design problem. More advanced courses in kinetics that are taught by physical
chemists naturally reflect the research interests of the individuals involved; they do
not stress the transmittal of that information which is most useful to individuals
engaged in the practice of reactor design. Seldom is significant attention paid to the
subject of heterogeneous catalysis and to the key role that catalytic processes play
in the industrial world.
Chapters 3 to 7 treat the aspects of chemical kinetics that are important to the
education of a well-read chemical engineer. To stress further the chemical problems
involved and to provide links to the real world, I have attempted where possible
to use actual chemical reactions and kinetic parameters in the many illustrative
examples and problems. However, to retain as much generality as possible, the
presentations of basic concepts and the derivations of fundamental equations are
couched in terms of the anonymous chemical species A, B, C, U, V, etc. Where it is
appropriate, the specific chemical reactions used in the illustrations are reformulated
in these terms to indicate the manner in which the generalized relations are employed.
Chapters 8 to 13 provide an introduction to chemical reactor design. We start
with the concept of idealized reactors with specified mixing characteristics operating
isothermally and then introduce complications such as the use of combinations of
reactors, implications of multiple reactions, temperature and energy effects, residence
time effects, and heat and mass transfer limitations that ari often involved when
heterogeneous catalysts are employed. Emphasis is placed on the fact that chemical
reactor design represents a straightforward application of the bread and butter tools
of the chemical engineer—the material balance and the energy balance. The
fundamental design equations in the second half of the text are algebraic descendents
of the generalized material balance equation

Rate of _ Rate of
input ~~ output’
Rate of
Rate of disappearance
by reaction
In the case of nonisothermal systems one must write equations of this form both for
energy and for the chemical species of interest, and then solve the resultant equations
simultaneously to characterize the effluent composition and the thermal effects associated with operation of the reactor. Although the material and energy balance
equations are not coupled when no temperature changes occur in the reactor, the
design engineer still must solve the energy balance equation to ensure that sufficient
capacity for energy transfer is provided so that the reactor will indeed operate
isothermally. The text stresses that the design process merely involves an extension
of concepts learned previously. The application of these concepts in the design
process involves equations that differ somewhat in mathematical form from the
algebraic equations normally encountered in the introductory material and energy
balance course, but the underlying principles are unchanged. The illustrations involved in the reactor design portion of the text are again based where possible on real
chemical examples and actual kinetic data. The illustrative problems in Chapter 13
indicate the facility with which the basic concepts may be rephrased or applied in
computer language, but this material is presented only after the student has been
thoroughly exposed to the concepts involved and has learned to use them in attacking
reactor design problems. I believe that the subject of computer-aided design should
be deferred to graduate courses in reactor design and to more advanced texts.
The notes that form the basis for the bulk of this textbook have been used for
several years in the undergraduate course in chemical kinetics and reactor design at
the University of Wisconsin. In this course, emphasis is placed on Chapters 3 to 6
and 8 to 12, omitting detailed class discussions of many of the mathematical derivations. My colleagues and I stress the necessity for developing a “seat of the pants”
feeling for the phenomena involved as well as an ability to analyze quantitative
problems in terms of design framework developed in the text.
The material on catalysis and heterogeneous reactions in Chapters 6, %, and 13
is a useful framework for an intermediate level graduate course in catalysis and
chemical reactor design. In the latter course emphasis is placed on developing the
student’s ability to analyze critically actual kinetic data obtained from the literature
in order to acquaint him with many of the traps into which the unwary may fall.
Some of the problems in Chapter 12 and the illustrative case studies in Chapter 1’3
have evolved from this course.
Most of the illustrative examples and problems in the text are based on actual
data from the kinetics literature. However, in many cases, rate constants, heats of
reaction, activation energies, and other parameters have been converted to SI units
from various other systems. To be able to utilize the vast literature of kinetics for
reactor design purposes, one must develop a facility for making appropriate transformations of parameters from one system of urtits to another. Consequently, I have
chosen not to employ SI units exclusively in this text.
Like other authors of textbooks for undergraduates, I owe major debts to the
instructors who first introduced me to this subject matter and to the authors and
researchers whose publications have contributed to my understanding of the subject.
As a student, I benefited from instruction by R. C. Reid, C. N. Satterfield, and
I. Amdur and from exposure to the texts of Walas, Frost and Pearson, and Benson.
Some of the material in Chapter 6 has been adapted with permission from the course
notes of Professor C. N. Satterfield of MIT, whose direct and indirect influence
on my thinking is further evident in some of the data interpretation problems in
Chapters 6 and 12. As an instructor I have found the texts by Levenspiel and Smith
to be particularly useful at the undergraduate level; the books by Denbigh, Laidler,
Hinshelwood, Aris, and Kramers and Westerterp have also helped to shape my
views of chemical kinetics and reactor design. I have tried to use the best ideas of
these individuals and the approaches that I have found particularly useful in the
classroom in the synthesis of this textbook. A major attraction of this subject is that
there are many alternative ways of viewing the subject. Without an exposure to
several viewpoints, one cannot begin to grasp the subject in its entirety. Only after
such exposure, bombardment by the probing questions of one’s students, and much
contemplation can one begin to synthesize an individual philosophy of kinetics. To
the humanist it may seem a misnomer to talk in terms of a philosophical approach
to kinetics, but to the individuals who have taken kinetics courses at different schools
or even in different departments and to the individuals who have read widely in the
kinetics literature, it is evident that several such approaches do exist and that
specialists in the area do have individual philosophies that characterize their approach to the subject.
The stimulating environment provided by the students and staff of the Chemical
Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin has provided much of the
necessary encouragement and motivation for writing this textbook. The Department
has long been a fertile environment for research and textbook writing in the area of
chemical kinetics and reactor design. The text by O. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson
represents a classic pioneering effort to establish a rational approach to the subject
from the viewpoint of the chemical engineer. Through the years these individuals
and several members of our current staff have contributed significantly to the evolution of the subject. I am indebted to my colleagues, W. E. Stewart, S. H. Langer,
C. C. Watson, R. A. Grieger, S. L. Cooper, and T. W. Chapman, who have used
earlier versions of this textbook as class notes or commented thereon, to my benefit.
All errors are, of course, my own responsibility.
I am grateful to the graduate students who have served as my teaching assistants
and who have brought to my attention various ambiguities in the text or problem
statements. These include J. F. Welch, A. Yu, R. Krug, E. Guertin, A. Kozinski,
G. Estes, J. Coca, R. Safford, R. Harrison, J. Yurchak, G. Schrader, A. Parker,
T. Kumar, and A. Spence. I also thank the students on whom I have tried out my
ideas. Their response to the subject matter has provided much of the motivation for
this textbook.
Since drafts of this text were used as course notes, the secretarial staff of the
department, which includes D. Peterson, C. Sherven, M. Sullivan, and M. Carr,
deserves my warmest thanks for typing this material. I am also very appreciative
of my wife’s efforts in typing the final draft of this manuscript and in correcting the
galley proofs. Vivian Kehane, Jacqueline Lachmann, and Peter Klein of Wiley were
particularly helpful in transforming my manuscript into this text.
My wife and children have at times been neglected during the preparation of this
textbook; for their cooperation and inspiration I am particularly grateful.
Madison, Wisconsin
G. HILL, Jr.
Supplementary References
Since this is an introductory text, all topics of potential interest cannot be treated
to the depth that the reader may require. Consequently, a number of useful
supplementary references are listed below.
A. References Pertinent to the Chemical Aspects of Kinetics
1. I. Amdur and G. G. Hammes, Chemical Kinetics: Principles and Selected
Topics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966.
2. S. W. Benson, The Foundations of Chemical Kinetics, McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1960.
3. M. Boudart, Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
N.J., 1968.
4. A. A. Frost and R. G. Pearson, Kinetics and Mechanism, Wiley, New York,
5. W. C. Gardiner, Jr., Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions, Benjamin,
New York, 1969.
6. K. J. Laidler, Chemical Kinetics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.
B. References Pertinent to the Engineering or Reactor Design Aspects of Kinetics
1. R. Aris, Introduction to the Analysis of Chemical Reactors, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965.
2. J. J. Carberry, Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1976.
3. A. R. Cooper and G. V. Jeffreys, Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design,
Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1971.
4. H. W. Cremer (Editor), Chemical Engineering Practice, Volume 8, Chemical
Kinetics, Butterworths, London, 1965.
5. K. G. Denbigh and J. C. R. Turner, Chemical Reactor Theory, Second
Edition, Cambridge University Press, London, 1971.
6. H. S. Fogler, Tlw Elements of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Calculations,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1974.
7. H. Kramers and K. R. Westerterp, Elements of Chemical Reactor Design and
Operation, Academic Press, New York, 1963.
8. O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Second Edition, Wiley,
New York, 1972.
9. E. E. Petersen, Chemical Reaction Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
N.J., 1965.
10. C. N. Satterfield, Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis,” MIT Press,
Cambridge, Mass., 1970.
11. J. M. Smith, Chemical Engineering Kinetics, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1970.
C. G. H., Jr.
1 Stoichiometric Coefficients and Reaction
Progress Variables
2 Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions
3 Basic Concepts in Chemical Kinetics—Determination
of the Reaction Rate Expression
4 Basic Concepts in Chemical Kinetics—Molecular
Interpretations of Kinetic Phenomena
5 Chemical Systems Involving Multiple Reactions
6 Elements of Heterogeneous Catalysis
7 Liquid Phase Reactions
8 Basic Concepts in Reactor Design and Ideal
Reactor Models
9 Selectivity and Optimization Considerations in the
Design of Isothermal Reactors
10 Temperature and Energy Effects in Chemical Reactors
11 Deviations from Ideal Flow Conditions
12 Reactor Design for Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions
13 Illustrative Problems in Reactor Design
Appendix A Thermochemical Data
Appendix B Fugacity Coefficient Chart
Appendix C Nomenclature
Name Index
Subject Index
Stoichiometric Coefficients
and Reaction Progress Variables
Without chemical reaction our world would be
a barren planet. No life of any sort would exist.
Even if we exempt the fundamental reactions
involved in life processes from our proscription
on chemical reactions, our lives would be
extremely different from what they are today.
There would be no fire for warmth and cooking,
no iron and steel with which to fashion even the
crudest implements, no synthetic fibers for
clothing, and no engines to power our vehicles.
One feature that distinguishes the chemical
engineer from other types of engineers is the
ability to analyze systems in which chemical
reactions are occurring and to apply the results
of his analysis in a manner that benefits society.
Consequently, chemical engineers must be well
acquainted with the fundamentals of chemical
kinetics and the manner in which they are
applied in chemical reactor design. This textbook provides a systematic introduction to these
Chemical kinetics deals with quantitative
studies of the rates at which chemical processes
occur, the factors on which these rates depend,
and the molecular acts involved in reaction
processes. A description of a reaction in terms
of its constituent molecular acts is known as
the mechanism of the reaction. Physical and
organic chemists are primarily interested in
chemical kinetics for the light that it sheds on
molecular properties. From interpretations of
macroscopic kinetic data in terms of molecular
mechanisms, they can gain insight into the
nature of reacting systems, the processes by
which chemical bonds are made and broken,
and the structure of the resultant product.
Although chemical engineers find the concept
of a reaction mechanism useful in the correlation, interpolation, and extrapolation of rate
data, they are more concerned with applications
of chemical kinetics in the development of
profitable manufacturing processes.
Chemical engineers have traditionally approached kinetics studies with the goal of
describing the behavior of reacting systems in
terms of macroscopically observable quantities
such as temperature, pressure, composition,
and Reynolds number. This empirical approach
has been very fruitful in that it has permitted
chemical reactor technology to develop to a
point that far surpasses the development of
theoretical work in chemical kinetics.
The dynamic viewpoint of chemical kinetics
may be contrasted with the essentially static
viewpoint of thermodynamics. A kinetic system
is a system in unidirectional movement toward
a condition of thermodynamic equilibrium.
The chemical composition of the system changes
continuously with time. A system that is in
thermodynamic equilibrium, on the other hand,
undergoes no net change with time. The thermodynamicist is interested only in the initial and
final states of the system and is not concerned
with the time required for the transition or the
molecular processes involved therein; the chemical kineticist is concerned primarily with these
In principle one can treat the thermodynamics
of chemical reactions on a kinetic basis by
recognizing that the equilibrium condition
corresponds to the case where the rates of the
forward and reverse reactions are identical.
In this sense kinetics is the more fundamental
science. Nonetheless, thermodynamics provides
much vital information to the kineticist and to
the reactor designer. In particular, the first
step in determining the economic feasibility of
producing a given material from a given reactant feed stock should be the determination of
the product yield at equilibrium at the conditions of the reactor outlet. Since this composition
represents the goal toward which the kinetic
Stoichiometric Coefficients and Reaction Progress Variables
process is moving, it places a maximum limit on
the product yield that may be obtained. Chemical engineers must also use thermodynamics to
determine heat transfer requirements for proposed reactor configurations.
monoxide oxidation reaction in our notation as
0 = 2CO 2 – 2CO – O 2
instead of in the more conventional form, which
has the reactants on the left side and the products
on the right side.
This second form is preferred, provided that
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