Method of Communicating Age Appropriate Screening Guidelines to The Appropriate Population The purpose of this Assignment is for you to design a method of

Method of Communicating Age Appropriate Screening Guidelines to The Appropriate Population The purpose of this Assignment is for you to design a method of communicating age appropriate screening guidelines to the appropriate population. This can either be a trifold brochure or a 10 slide PowerPoint presentation.


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1. Select a screening test and the age appropriate population at risk.

2. Introduce the screening and why you selected it.

3. Outline the relevant group statistics related to the population as well as the impact of

the group on women’s health.

4. Discuss the issues impacting screening.


Assignment Requirements

consult the Grading Rubric to make sure you have included everything necessary; and

Your writing Assignment should:

follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);

use APA 6th Edition format.

be a trifold brochure or a 10 slide PowerPoin®t presentation.

include references in APA format. The Role of Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy in Achieving Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Innovative and entrepreneurial organizations develop a strategy that can effectively lead to the
commercialization of the new and novel products or services in the marketplace with a sustainable
competitive advantage. Strategic management and entrepreneurship are dynamic processes that are
intended to enhance organizational performance (Kuratko & Audretsch, 2009).
Strategic management focuses on how competitive positioning can create advantages for organizations
that, in turn, enhance performance (Porter, 1980, 1996) and achieve sustained competitive advantage.
Strategic planning requires top management to focus beyond the current external environment and
envisage the organization’s market position in the short, medium, and long term. It necessitates the
ability to evaluate the resources and core competencies in terms of how they can be utilized to create
new sources of value.
Innovation and entrepreneurship are the key to successfully developing competitive advantages. The
challenge is to develop innovation and entrepreneurship as a core competence of the organization. In a
global competitive economy, the most successful strategies are those that are integrated with
innovative and entrepreneurial activities that offer superior value and create wealth. Strategy and
strategic management define the direction of the organization and how well it is achieved. Management
needs to develop a strategy that focuses on the best ways for the organization to create and sustain a
competitive advantage while simultaneously identifying and developing new opportunities. Innovation
and entrepreneurship are focused on searching for new opportunities that will create value for the
organization, customers, and stakeholders. Strategy is focused on sustaining competitive advantage and
achieving above-average returns. Simultaneously embracing entrepreneurial philosophies, an
entrepreneurial climate, and entrepreneurial strategic behaviors increases the likelihood an organization
will identify and use its unique capabilities as a pathway to increasing its performance (Ireland, Covin, &
Kuratko, 2009). Therefore, the integration of innovation and entrepreneurship for opportunity
identification and development and a strategy for sustaining competitive advantage are necessary for
value and wealth creation. Organizations that can develop competitive advantages today, while using
innovation and entrepreneurship to cultivate tomorrow’s advantages, increase the chance of survival
and growth in the long term.
Integration of Innovation and Entrepreneurship with Strategy
The integration of innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy can be defined as a vision directed
strategic analysis with a core focus on innovative and entrepreneurial behaviors that continuously
develop the organization through the identification and development of innovative and entrepreneurial
opportunities that result in value creation and sustained competitive advantage. For innovation and
entrepreneurship to be ingrained into the very existence of the organization, it must be integrated into
the organizational strategy. Organizations like Apple, Dell, and Southwest Airlines capture the essence of
a strategy that is unique, innovative, and entrepreneurial in defining and creating market value.
The integration of innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy allows top management to develop
strategies that concentrate on (1) competitive advantages that are a core part of strategic management
and (2) the identification and development of opportunities for which future competitive advantages
can be developed and sustained. It is the simultaneous use of existing advantages and the identification
of future opportunities that sustains competitive advantage and the ability to continuously create value
and wealth. The integration is beneficial to SMEs and large corporations as it helps SMEs develop their
strategies toward competitive advantage and large corporations to become more innovative and
The model presented in Figure 4.1 identifies three core dimensions: (1) innovation and entrepreneurial
strategic analysis, (2) strategic choice for value creation and competitiveness, and (3) strategic
implementation for wealth creation and sustained competitive advantage. The first dimension specifies
the key factors influencing the process at different levels, including environmental factors,
organizational factors (behavior and climate), and customers and stakeholders. The second dimension
focuses on options and choices available from the analysis, specifically focusing on the utilization of
resources and the entrepreneurial actions from the first dimension that are used to develop current
opportunities while simultaneously exploring new opportunities that will create value. These actions
occur primarily at the organizational level. Finally, the implementation of selected opportunities will
create advantages for the organization, customers and stakeholders and society through value creation,
knowledge, opportunity, competitiveness, and societal developments.
Figure 4.1 The Integration of Innovation and Entrepreneurship with Strategy
Innovation and Entrepreneurial Strategic Analysis
This analysis involves four main areas: (1) the external environment, (2) the entrepreneurial climate, (3)
entrepreneurial behavior, and (4) customer and stakeholder focus.
External Environment
The external environment has been recognized as having a strong influence on the existence and
effectiveness of innovation and entrepreneurial activity. Monitoring, assessing, and evaluating the
external environment to ensure the right decisions are made and actions implemented is not part of a
one-time implementation but needs to be continuous in order to ensure organizational success and
competitiveness. Different environmental conditions result in different organizational approaches to
innovation and entrepreneurship. In times of economic growth and prosperity, innovation and
entrepreneurship emerge as a result of key opportunities. During economic recession, innovation and
entrepreneurship occur out of necessity as market conditions significantly change and competition is
intensified; only the innovative organization will survive.
The external environment affects an organization’s ability to identify or create opportunities and
subsequently their ability to develop those opportunities in a competitive advantage. Munificence,
dynamism, hostility, and interconnectedness are important environmental factors for the integration of
innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy. Environmental munificence facilitates acquiring
resources and the identification of opportunities in addition to the ability to develop the resources and
opportunities to create competitive advantage. Organizations seek out environmental munificence,
which refers to the level of resources in a particular environment that can support sustained growth,
stability, and survival (Dess & Beard, 1984). The environment many organizations face is inherently
dynamic and uncertain. Dynamism refers to the extent to which an organization’s operating
environment is rapidly changing and subject to high levels of uncertainty. This uncertainty results in an
inability to adequately access external environmental conditions, creating ambiguity during the strategic
decision-making process. This results in decision makers lacking adequate knowledge for identifying and
developing new opportunities. Research has shown that organizations frequently respond to challenging
environmental conditions such as those present in dynamic environments by innovating and engaging in
entrepreneurial behaviors. Hostile environments incentivize organizations to pursue innovation as a
source of competitive advantage. Hostility tends to create threats for the organization and stimulates
the pursuit of innovation and entrepreneurship. Theories of interconnectedness, including networks and
social capital, explain the paths organizations pursue to build capabilities. Open innovation, discussed in
Chapter 3, in which large corporations and SMEs share ideas, knowledge, skills, and opportunities,
supports the integration of innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy. Ford engages customers in
“what’s next,” taking the organization’s open innovation model to the next level; Philips has established
partnerships all over the innovation stages from basic innovation to commercialization; Telefónica has
established a network that involves over 1,000 partners, and they have seven research centers mostly in
Spain and close to technology parks. By applying ideas from its collaborative network, an organization
can fill the innovation gap and maintain the balance between their search to achieve competitive
advantage as well as identify and develop opportunities and therefore maintain the entrepreneurial
mind-set needed for effective integration. SMEs are able to use creativity to create unique innovation
while reducing any inhibiting factors associated with their size and limited resources. As a result of slack
resources, large corporations are able to explore opportunities outside their traditional domain and in
the process can leverage existing business practices.
Entrepreneurial Climate
An entrepreneurial climate reinforces the development of expected behaviors among individuals
throughout the organization. To integrate innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy requires an
entrepreneurial climate that (1) is supported and facilitated by top management with an entrepreneurial
vision; (2) promotes entrepreneurial actions by pursuing and encouraging the pursuit of innovative and
entrepreneurial opportunities that can create new business for the organization or increase
competitiveness in the existing business domains; and (3) implements the innovative and
entrepreneurial actions through the organization’s core competencies, which can be used to develop
opportunities for competitive advantage. Top management is responsible for developing an
entrepreneurial climate that is supported with the appropriate structure, systems and culture.
Entrepreneurial Behavior
Entrepreneurial behavior is seen as an important path to improved performance in all types of
organizations. Entrepreneurial behavior and strategic and resource capabilities are important for an
organization to develop opportunities and achieve competitive advantage as the sources of its long-term
success. The entrepreneurial mind-set is manifested through many specific actions. Entrepreneurial
alertness, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial effectuation are individual level indicators
of entrepreneurial behavior. Their measures are grounded in individual level psychological and cognitive
theories. Entrepreneurial alertness entails the ability to notice opportunities that have been overlooked.
Entrepreneurial leaders with high self-efficacy frequently contribute to enhanced revenue and
employment growth in the organization. Drive, passion, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy motivate
managers to pursue and realize strategic and entrepreneurial goals that are fundamental to the
integration of innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy. Effectuation argues that experts use logic
to transform means into new outcomes that they themselves may not have initially anticipated.
Cognitive ability to effectuate is used to create opportunities in the environment and to achieve shortterm competitive advantages. The motivation and encouragement for innovation and entrepreneurship,
combined with the utilization of resources and capabilities, foster an innovative and entrepreneurial
culture in the organization and the development of market niches in the environment over time that
contributes to value and wealth creation.
Customer and Stakeholder Focus
To benefit from the integration of innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy, the focus must be on
achieving an array of objectives that are important to customers and stakeholders. An organization must
know what customers value and identify the needs of their customers and then create the differentiated
products and services to match those needs. When an organization not only satisfies but exceeds the
demands of their customers, they are differentiating themselves from average performers and giving
themselves greater opportunity for long-term growth and sustained competitive advantage. If SMEs and
large corporations do not engage in opportunity identification and development, an innovative,
entrepreneurial organization will introduce a better product that provides more value to customers and
take their market away. The unique approach to video rental introduced by Netflix drove Blockbuster
into bankruptcy. Similarly, iTunes has taken the market of major music stores, creating closures
Strategic Choice for Value Creation and Competitiveness
Based on the innovation and entrepreneurial strategic analysis, top management must make strategic
choices that will create value and achieve competitive advantages with the objective of being sustained
over time. Top management actions must be comprehensive in synchronizing the various resources
while simultaneously addressing both strengths and weaknesses to realize competitive advantages that
help them pursue future opportunities leading to sustained competitive advantage and value creation.
Strategic Implementation for Value Creation and Sustained Competitive Advantage
The closer the organization’s strategy is linked to their core competencies and integrated with the
internal activities, the easier it will be to implement. The implementation of a strategy that is integrated
with innovation and entrepreneurship requires flexibility and adaptability. A truly innovative and
entrepreneurial organization that is focused on creating value and sustained competitive advantage
recognizes that implementation involves an iterative process; this organization makes all the necessary
adjustments to make their strategy successful. A successful strategy creates advantages for the
organization, customers and stakeholders, and society.
Organizational Advantages
New technology and innovation is critical for most all organizations. Many organizations are building
relationships with university technology development programs as an external source for new
technologies and products. Simultaneously, an increasing number of universities have built technology
transfer programs in which they develop new technologies and transfer them to the private sector for
commercialization. As such, the university becomes a source of R & D for these organizations. Some
organizations use acquisitions to gain access to new technologies and highly valuable innovations. These
acquisitions are common in the pharmaceutical industry and in other high-technology industries such as
software development. Acquisitions are frequently practiced by technology-oriented organizations such
as Microsoft and Cisco, with the objective of gaining access to new software ideas and technologies.
Another advantage of developing new technologies and innovation is the creation of new knowledge,
which usually leads to new market opportunities and contributes to competitive advantage.
Customer/Stakeholder Advantages
Sound implementation is one that focuses on providing value for customers, building value for
stockholders, and generating benefits for other stakeholders and wider community. Successful
innovations generate new value for customers and stakeholders. Competitors identify the opportunity
created by some innovations and aim to develop a modified version that provides customers with goods
or services that have greater reliability, customization, accessibility, higher quality, excellent customer
service, and a lower cost than other competing organizations.
Societal Advantages
Innovation and entrepreneurial activities are a major contributor to bringing about economic growth
and development, creating new jobs, and enhancing market value. Novel innovations can be used to
address a number of environmental issues. Innovation and entrepreneurial activity can help build new
economic, social, institutional, and cultural environments and thereby provide significant benefits to
society at large.
Top Management Support
Top management support as well as the appropriate organizational structure, systems, and culture are
necessary ingredients for the integration of innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy. In an
innovative and entrepreneurial organization, top management influences and motivates individuals to
identify and develop opportunities in search of competitive advantage.
While structures and systems are necessary for the management and control of an organization, they
need to have some flexibility for innovation and entrepreneurship to develop. Strategic flexibility
involves a willingness to continuously rethink and make appropriate adjustments to the organization’s
strategies, structure, systems, and culture. Research has found that an innovative and entrepreneurial
organization is more adaptable and flexible to change with decentralized decision making; fewer
organizational layers; open channels of communication; and closely integrated R & D, manufacturing,
and marketing functions. This flexibility allows an organization to quickly respond to the fast-changing
dynamic and complex external environment, thereby creating a position where opportunities can be
more readily identified and developed with greater potential to develop competitiveness compared to
more bureaucratic organizations.
Culture influences a number of aspects of organizational activity including how people behave and
interact. Truly entrepreneurial organizations need to have innovation and entrepreneurship as the core
element of their culture. Positive cultures are in line with the organization’s vision, mission, and
strategies and help promote desired behavior. Top management must manage a culture that applauds
successes, learns from failures, and provides screening mechanisms to facilitate innovation and
entrepreneurship. Failure is a necessary part of the innovation process because from failure comes the
greatest learning and the development of new models. This is recognized by many companies such as
Amazon, Facebook, and Google. Innovative organizations build and develop the right culture and
systems that encourages innovative behaviors as well as being willing to accept failures and learn from
them. Innovative companies never make the same mistake twice; they make different ones, and most
importantly, they learn from them all.
For organizations to successfully balance identifying and developing opportunities, searching for
competitive advantage is necessary but challenging in today’s economic environment. Achieving this
balance requires a positive culture that is in line with the organization’s vision and strategies, top
management support, and an organizational structure that is capable of supporting the dual needs of
identification and development. The most effective balance between identifying and developing is
influenced by competitive environment in which the organization operates. Top management’s abilities
to strategically structure the resources to develop capabilities that can be effectively leveraged within
the existing competitive environment support the organization’s efforts to gain competitive advantage
and create value and wealth.
Integrating innovation and entrepreneurship with strategy requires a positive culture and an
organization to have a supportive top management team and be able to develop the structures and
systems that support such a strategy. If, for example, an organization chooses to pursue open
innovation as a strategy, there must be a fit between the culture and the stra…
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