How Does Your Firm/Organization/Agency Promote Ethical Communication Question How does your firm/organization/agency promote ethical communication? Is ther

How Does Your Firm/Organization/Agency Promote Ethical Communication Question How does your firm/organization/agency promote ethical communication? Is there a separate policy for the use of electronic communication?250-300 words for the initial post. Please be sure to cite any sources you use to support your answers. 1
Organizational Behavior
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Hall #6
Just Make Me! Motivation and Work
2
Welcome to Hall 6
• Just Make Me! Motivation and Work




What motivates you?
What motivates others?
What motivates us to comply with the rules?
What motivates us to perform beyond mere
compliance?
3
Hall 6 Topics








Christian interpretation of the value of work
How motivation varies in scriptural example
Case review and response on motivation topics
Current approaches to motivation
Justice in the organization
Psychological contract
Designing individual and team rewards
Evaluating the motivational power of reward and punishment
4
Questions for reflection & study
• How does God motivate his people?
• What is meant by organizational justice?
• How do motivation and punishment differ, and
what is the purpose of each?
5
What’s my motivation? Why do I
do what I do?
• The reward of the job itself?
▫ I love my job!
• The outcome of the job?
▫ I’m serving a larger purpose!
• The compensation we receive?
▫ The pay is great!
• The benefits and perquisites?
▫ I have summers off to be with
my children!
• A combination of things?
6
What’s my motivation?
• The Method
▫ Stanislavski
▫ Popularized in U.S. acting
schools in the middle of the
20th century
▫ Getting into the character
▫ Understanding the character
▫ Many popular actors were
trained in this style for stage
and film
• “What’s my motivation?”
popularized in the 1960s – 70s
7
What’s my motivation?
• If you must have motivation,
think of your paycheck on
Friday.
▫ Attributed to playwright
director Noel Coward
8
What’s your motivation?
• Think about it
▫ Are you motivated by the
meaningful work? Do you
 love what you do?
 like the benefits?
 What are the benefits?
 work because you must?
 Can you not afford to
quit?
 Imagine yourself doing
something different?
9
The worker’s appetite
• The laborer’s appetite works
for him; his hunger drives him
on.
 Proverbs 16:26
10
Enthusiasm
• Whatever your hand finds to
do, do it with all your might,
for in the grave, where you are
going, there is neither working
nor planning, nor knowledge,
nor wisdom.
▫ Ecclesiastes 9:10
11
Was Solomon motivated?
• Was the wisest man (ever) a sourpuss when he
wrote those words?
▫ Is Ecclesiastes terminally fatalistic?
▫ Was Solomon saying “grab the gusto” because this
is all there is?
▫ Had he seen it all?
12
Biblical Foundation
• Proverbs 16:26
▫ When we’re not motivated by the love of our
work, our hunger and desire drives us on
• Ecclesiastes 9:10
▫ Do your work well, not to find meaning, but
because it is meaningful because it is work
 Remember God’s job for man – tend & nurture the
Garden
13
The story doesn’t end there
• “Do not let your hearts be troubled. Trust in
God; trust also in me. In my Father’s house are
many rooms; if it were not so, I would have told
you. I am going there to prepare a place for you.
And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will
come back and take you to be with me that you
also may be where I am.
▫ John 14: 1-3
14
God’s values
• Work
▫ Necessity
▫ Complexity
▫ Simplicity
▫ Meaning
▫ Creativity
• It’s how we participate
in His work of making
all things new
• Motivation
▫ And its various forms







Time
Eternity
Enthusiasm
Joy
Lament
Fellowship
Separation
15
• We can identify lack of
motivation very easily in
every level of an
organization






Work is not accomplished
Work is of poor quality
Supervision is not given
Supervision is of poor quality
Leadership is not offered
Leadership is of poor quality
Dysfunctional
organization
Think about how these might
manifest themselves in
organizations :
•Product or service is not
produced, or is of such low
quality that no one wants it.
•Employees become lazy and
disobedient.
•No adherence to rules, norms,
roles.
•Behavior is modeled and
copied.
•Disorganization exists,
turnover is high, industry
standards are lowered,
businesses fail.
16
Motivation at work
• Employees perform beyond compliance
▫ Enthusiasm about benchmarking and quality
• Culture encourages high performance
• Training is available and expected
▫ May be formal or informal shared knowledge
• Respect is given where appropriate
• Appropriate work behaviors are modeled
• Discipline is provided and fair
17
So where do I get some of this?
• Individually, we are tasked with this:
▫ Proverbs 16:3
 Some versions suggest that if we give our plans to
the Lord whatever we do will succeed. We must be
careful how we define success.
 What are our expectations for success?
 Another version suggests that if we commit our work
to the Lord, our thoughts will be established.
18
What determines job performance?
• The presence of:
▫ willingness to perform, capacity to perform,
opportunity to perform
motivation + skills + opportunity = job performance
19
Two basic motivation approaches
• Content approaches
▫ We tend to call these the
“need theories”




Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Herzberg’s 2-Factor Theory
McLelland’s Learned Needs
• Process approaches
▫ We tend to call these
“behavior theories”
• Expectancy Theory
• Equity Theory
20
Start with the individual
• Needs
▫ Deficiencies (something
lacking) that an individual
experiences at a particular
point in time
• Motivational process
▫ Needs recognized
▫ Search for satisfiers
▫ Direct behavior toward goal
▫ Evaluate performance toward
goal
▫ Reward or punishment
▫ Need deficiency reassessed
21
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs





Physiological
Safety and security
Social (love)
Esteem
Self actualization
22
A satisfied need
• A satisfied need does not cease to be a need, but
it ceases to be a motivator.
• Unsatisfied needs, over time, lead to frustration
and undesirable performance outcomes.
• Not everyone will strive beyond their current
level of need satisfaction.
23
Other needs theories
• ERG Theory
▫ Existence
▫ Relatedness
▫ Growth
• Alderfer’s theory
corresponds to
Maslow’s
▫ Motivation can be
redirected
• Herzberg’s 2-Factor Theory
▫ Extrinsic
 Job context
 Salary, job security, working
conditions, status
 Needed to maintain at least
“no dissatisfaction”
▫ Intrinsic
 Job content
 Achievement, recognition,
responsibility, possibility of
advancement
 Contribute to satisfaction
24
Are you motivated yet?
• Given the information from Herzberg, Alderfer,
and Maslow, would you say that you are a
motivated person?
• Are you motivated by “lower order needs” or
“higher order needs”?
• Are you intrinsically or extrinsically motivated?
25
Job enrichment
• The process of
building personal
achievement,
recognition,
challenge,
responsibility, and
growth opportunities
into a person’s work
26
Organizational citizenship behavior





Altruism
Courtesy
Compliance
Civic virtue
Sportsmanship
• Great Commandment
stuff
• OCB influencers:
▫ employees with higher
collectivist perspective
▫ situational factors that
require redefinition of
role
▫ modeled leadership
27
McLelland’s Learned Needs Theory
• McLelland’s theory suggests
that we learn what we need
from culture and environment
▫ (Jonesing)
28
Expectancy theory
• Employees are more likely to
be motivated when they
perceive their efforts will
result in successful
performance and deserved
rewards and outcomes
• First level outcomes
• Second level outcomes
• (1st level is likely to produce
2nd level)
▫ Job performance leads to
reward or punishment
29
I-V-E
• Expectancy Theory
▫ Instrumentality
 Expectation of cause and effect between 1st and 2nd level
outcomes
▫ Valence
 Strength of preference of the outcome
▫ Expectancy
 Belief about the outcome being caused by the behavior
30
Equity Theory
• Theory of motivation
that examines how a
person might respond
to perceived
discrepancies
between her
input/outcome ratio
and that of a
reference person
31
Organizational justice
• Focuses on perceptions and judgments by
employees regarding the fairness of their
organization’s procedures and decisions




Distributive justice
Procedural justice
Interpersonal justice
Informational justice
32
Setting goals
• Goal is the target of
an action
▫ Goal specificity
▫ Goal difficulty
▫ Goal intensity
▫ Goal commitment
33
Psychological contract
• Unwritten agreement
between employee
and organization
about what each
expects from the
other
34
Review the questions
• How does God motivate his people?
• What is meant by organizational justice?
• How do motivation and punishment differ, and
what is the purpose of each?
35
What next?





Take the Hall Quiz
Complete your detailed reading
Self reflection regarding motivation
Answer the discussion questions
Complete the writing assignments
36
What’s your motivation?
37
References
• Ivancevich, J.M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson,
M.T. (2010). Organizational behavior. NY, NY:
McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
• The Holy Bible
38
This concludes Hall 6

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