Cumberlands Organizational Leadership and Decision Making Paper Week 6 Discussion: Improving risk management capabilities Discuss actions required to deve

Cumberlands Organizational Leadership and Decision Making Paper Week 6 Discussion: Improving risk management capabilities

Discuss actions required to develope an effective risk management capability.

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Post your answer to the forum questions by 11:59pm EST on Thursday
Your answer must be substantive, which usually requires 300 words or more
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Your answer must include one properly formatted APA in-text citation to a scholarly reference. The full reference must be provided at the end of your answer with a link if one is available.
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Post two replies to your classmates by 11:59pm EST on Sunday
No forum posts made after 11:59pm EST on Sunday will be graded It’s important for plants to regulate their development since they can’t move; they’re stuck in
place and they have to adapt to the environment
Weather, predators, sunlight, etc.
How do you count the rings of a tree without chopping it down?
Environmental Regulation of Plant Development
Plants need to respond to light, temperature, wind, biotic stress (e.g. getting eaten by an animal,
symbionts, pathogens), nutrients, water
How?
Stem elongation, organ initiation, shoot and root branching, wound responses, defense
responses, tropisms
Difference Between Plants and Animals
Plants convert light energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis
Plants are the source of all chemical energy on earth
Photosynthesis –> autotrophic
Plants are sessile (don’t move)
Plants have cell walls that prevent cell movements
Plants have alternation of generations
Plant cells (sporophytes) undergo meiosis to go from 2n to n
Produces spores
Spores undergo a series of mitotic divisions to produce many progeny, making the cell a
gametophyte
Gametophytes produces gametes which fuse to make a 2n zygote, making the cell a
sporophyte again
The Genetic Approach to Studying a Biological Process
Isolate single gene mutants
Characterize phenotype
Determine the molecular identity of the affected gene
Determine molecular function of gene/protein
Arabidopsis Plant
Easy to grow
Shot generation time
Easy to cross
High frequency of self-fertilization
Diploid
Easy to make transgenic plants
Extensive genetic/genomic resources
Mutagenize seed (ems, g, fast neutron)
Only mutations that occur in Meristem cells (as opposed to root cells) are useful since those
are the ones that will be passed to the next generation
A bunch of different mutations
M1 generation
Will be chimeric (many different mutations) and heterozygous
Harvest M2 (self-progeny of M1) from pools of M1 plants
Screen pools for homozygous recessive and heterozygous dominant mutants
Goal is to identify a gene by breaking it and seeing what happens
Generation of Transgenic Plants
Leaf is put on a medium containing plant hormones of auxin and cytokinin
With the right concentration, you can make the tissue grow on a petri dish
This can then become a shoot or a root, depending on the relative concentrations of the hormones
Ratio of auxin/cytokinin regulates development (what the cells will do)
TI plasmid in bacteria encodes for T-DNA, which migrates into plant cell and integrates itself
into plant genome
Causes gall tumor (lumps on trees)
Tropism: a growth response that involves bending or curving of a plant part toward or away from
an external stimulus
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA): auxin
Auxin moves through files of cells
Auxin moves preferentially from new tissues toward the top to old tissues toward the bottom
Doesn’t move through the xylem or phloem like other molecules
Auxin tends to accumulate inside the cytoplasm, where it exists in a protonated form
Auxin only leaves via the bottom of each cell, which creates its polar movement through cells
How do plants perceive gravity?
Germplasm is the sum total of the genetic diversity or natural variation within a population
Selection: the process acting on natural variation
The favoring of one allele or genotype over another over time
Natural selection: the environment provides the selection by favoring the growth and
reproduction of certain individuals (genotypes) over others
Non-directed
Artificial selection: humans provide the selective force by favoring (directing) the
evolution of new forms (genotypes) over time
Jatropha has been cultivated for centuries
Soaps
Candles
Medicinals
Living fence
Fertilizer
Jatropha as a fuel source (biojet and biodiesel)
Jatropha growing belt provides greater potential plantation area than Oil Palm
How do we advance the commercial viability of Jatropha?
All commercially viable crops are improved versions of their wild relatives
Germplasm is the foundation for any crop improvement program
Germplasm –> selection –> elite cultivars
Uniformity in Fruit Ripening
Synchronous ripening
Facilitates harvesting
Maximizes oil content in seed
Reduces harvesting costs
Production method ensures cost efficient means of generating hybrid seed
Patent pending hybrid seed production method
SGB hybrids produce greater yields, resulting in lower production costs
There are very diverse root systems
Part 1: Root Development
The root is already present in the embryo
Seed coat protects the seed (embryo) from drying out
The root is the first thing that sprouts from the seed
Stem cells give rise to other stem cells or to others that will differentiate over time
The QC (quiescent center) of the embryo will become the root tissues
Radial symmetry of outer layers
Plants don’t have cell migration because the cell walls cause them to stick in place
All new cells are produced at the root tip
Structure reduces 4D process to 2D
Roots have layers and are very neatly organized tissues
Cells divide in the meristem
The way that roots respond to the environment is to either grow slower or faster
The smaller cells that are being produced at the root tips expand and get larger, causing the root
to grow
The tip is “pushed” into the ground
The cells that have divided are basically getting longer
Root Branching
Emerging lateral roots shape the root system architecture
Roots have a:
Differentiation zone


How a new root branch emerges:

The key is to get a mass of cells
Root apical meristem
Cells are more organized
Shoot apical meristem
Part 2:
Developmental plasticity leads to dynamic growth
Gravitropism
The tendency of roots to grow along the vector of gravity
How is the root actually able to bend down?
While elongation/expanding/becoming bigger, the root cells expand more on one side than
the other, causing the root to turn
PINs are auxin transporters
More auxin is pumped to one side than the other and that leads to an impact on the elongation of
cells
Hydrotropism: if you introduce a gravity factor and a water factor, the plant will tend to follow
the direction of the water over gravity
Responses to Nutrients and Water
Nutrient availability shapes root system architecture
The different cell types in the roots respond very differently to stresses
Cell size is reduced in pye mutants …
Root hairs are malformed in pye under -Fe conditions
Lower pH is required for more efficient uptake of iron from soil
Summary
Roots consist of distinct tissue layers
The rate of cell proliferation and expansion determines root growth
Lateral root formation determines whether root systems are branching
Root systems architecture is highly dependent on the environment
Roots respond to the environment by modulating developmental processes
Different environmental conditions lead to distinct developmental changes that are orchestrated
by master regulators (transcription factors)
How you might capture carbon in the atmosphere with plants:
Phyllotaxy: the arrangement of organs (leaves of flowers) on a stem
Decussate
Spiral
Shoot apical meristem produces leaves
Makes transition to become an inflorescence meristem
Instead of leaves, it makes flowers
If auxin is placed all around, a ridge of cells will appear, since multiple organs can’t grow
Auxin moves towards primordia since PIN1 is positioned in a certain way
Drives all the subsequent events that lead to the formation of a floral meristem
Plant’s most important function is photosynthesis
Thus, must be very responsive to light, which is
Can replicate images on a leaf by shining light in a specific pattern, since chloroplasts
respond to and move because of light
Is photosynthesis involved in the de-etiolation response?
Short bursts of light
Processes regulated by red light
Etiolation
Germination
Shade avoidance
Flowering
Circadian responses
Pigment formation
Using Arabidopsis as a reference plant to increase the oilseed yield of Canola
Shattering
Dispersal of seeds when they are ripe
Important part of development
Purpose of fruit is to mature the seeds but to also disperse them
In morocco, goats help disperse the seeds of local argan trees by spitting them out
Wild varieties of plants disperse their seeds on the ground and cannot be harvested
Informal selection by farmers over time have increasingly caused plant seeds to remain
intact to the plant (shatter-resistant)
How could you identify the genes responsible for shatter resistance?
Canola is an oilseed crop used for food and fuel
Where did canola come from?
Developed in the 1970s in Canada by conventional breeding of Brassica oilseed species
Canola seeds contain up to 44% oil
Canadian-grown canola contributes $26.7 billion annually and is responsible for 250K
Canadian jobs
Largest crop in Canada
Pod shattering results in huge losses of seed yield in canola
Canola seed pods do not all ripen at the same time
When should a farmer harvest canola to maximize seed oil yield?
Windrowing is a technique used by farmers to maximize seed yield at harvest
Hugely time consuming and expensive
Immature canola seeds are green and mature seeds are reddish brown or black
Shattering produces “volunteers” that act as weeds
Also a pain for farmers, as they steal nutrients from the crop
Problems associated with pod shattering
Farmers must “windrow” crops prior to harvest
Farmers harvest early before all seeds mature
Yield loss can be extensive due to weather conditions
Shattering leads to volunteers that behave as weeds
Can basic science research solve the problem of pod shattering in canola?
Arabidopsis Fruit Structure
Valve (outer part)
Replum (seam in the center)
Valve margin (boundary between valve and replum)
Pectinases cause cells of valve margin to unglue, causing valve to detach from replum and seeds
to fall out
How does the valve margin form only at the boundary of the valve and replum?
What genes are required for valve margin formation?
Look for mutants in which the fruit never opened (due to valve margin never
forming)
Shatterproof (SHP) MADS-box genes are required for valve margin formation
Indehiscent (IND) bHLH gene is required for valve margin formation
Expressed in lines at the valve margin, where it tells cells to differentiate
Not expressed in SHP mutants
SHP gene is required for IND gene expression
How is the line of valve margin gene expression established?
FUL suppresses/negatively regulates expression of IND
No FUL –> ectopic expression of IND
Loss of fruit and valve in FUL mutants can be rescued by mutating the valve margin genes
Replumless (RPL) homeobox gene is required for replum formation
Are the valve margin gene ectopically expressed in the RPL…?
What would an RPL FUL double mutant look like?
All around the fruit, every cell is a valve margin cell
Misexpression of FUL is sufficient to convert replum and valve margin cells into valve cells
Valve margin genes = ripening genes
Can’t just interrupt pectinases because there are so many genes regulating it
Giving long-night plants a flash of light during the night will suppress flowering
Plants sense the night length and not the day length
How does the plant know when to flower?
Perception of photoperiod, temperature etc.
Transport of signal to the meristem
Floral induction at meristem
Perilla crispa is a short day plant
Arabidopsis is a facultative long-day plant
Flowers faster in long days (16 hrs) but will flower eventually in short days (8 hrs)
Plants have clock functions and proteins just like humans
CO gene encodes a transcription factor that es expressed in leaves at a higher level in LD
conditions

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