Chemical Reaction Processes Models are useful for representing flow in real vessels, for scale up, and for diagnosing poor flow. These models apply to turb

Chemical Reaction Processes Models are useful for representing flow in real vessels, for scale up, and for diagnosing poor flow. These models apply to turbulent flow in pipes, laminar flow in very long tubes, flow in packed beds etc. An ideal pulse of tracer is introduced into a reactor and the pulse spreads as it passes through the vessel, and to characterize the spreading according to various models.

Illustrate the spreading of tracer using

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Chemical Reaction Processes Models are useful for representing flow in real vessels, for scale up, and for diagnosing poor flow. These models apply to turb
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dispersion model

and segregated flow model

with suitable diagram.

Note :

The answer will be

Paraphrase
minimum 5 pages for dispersion model with suitable diagram.
minimum 5 pages for segregated flow model with suitable diagram.
Harvard Referencing
Provide Some figures/ pictures with reference

please refer the attached books which you can use for answering the questions and also you can use more books from internet Elements
of Chemical
Reaction
Engineering
Fifth Edition
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Elements
of Chemical
Reaction
Engineering
Fifth Edition
H. SCOTT FOGLER
Ame and Catherine Vennema Professor of Chemical Engineering
and the Arthur F. Thurnau Professor
The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Fogler, H. Scott, author.
Elements of chemical reaction engineering / H. Scott Fogler.—Fifth edition.
pages cm
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-13-388751-8 (hardcover : alk. paper)
1. Chemical reactors. I. Title.
TP157.F65 2016
660′.2832—dc23
2015032892
Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and
permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions Department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/.
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-388751-8
ISBN-10: 0-13-388751-0
Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at RR Donnelley in Kendallville, Indiana.
First printing, January 2016
Dedicated to
Janet Meadors Fogler
For her companionship, encouragement,
sense of humor, love, and support throughout the years
This page intentionally left blank
Contents
PREFACE
xvii
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
CHAPTER 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
CHAPTER 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
xxxiii
MOLE BALANCES
1
The Rate of Reaction, –rA
4
The General Mole Balance Equation
8
Batch Reactors (BRs)
10
Continuous-Flow Reactors
12
1.4.1
Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
1.4.2
Tubular Reactor
14
1.4.3
Packed-Bed Reactor (PBR)
18
Industrial Reactors
22
12
CONVERSION AND REACTOR SIZING
Definition of Conversion
32
Batch Reactor Design Equations
32
Design Equations for Flow Reactors
35
2.3.1
CSTR (Also Known as a Backmix Reactor or a Vat)
36
2.3.2
Tubular Flow Reactor (PFR)
36
2.3.3
Packed-Bed Reactor (PBR)
37
Sizing Continuous-Flow Reactors
38
Reactors in Series
47
2.5.1
CSTRs in Series
48
2.5.2
PFRs in Series
52
2.5.3
Combinations of CSTRs and PFRs in Series
53
2.5.4
Comparing the CSTR and PFR Reactor Volumes and Reactor
Sequencing
57
vii
31
viii
Contents
2.6
CHAPTER 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
CHAPTER 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
CHAPTER 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Some Further Definitions
58
2.6.1
Space Time
58
2.6.2
Space Velocity
60
RATE LAWS
69
Basic Definitions
70
3.1.1
Relative Rates of Reaction
71
The Reaction Order and the Rate Law
72
3.2.1
Power Law Models and Elementary Rate Laws
72
3.2.2
Nonelementary Rate Laws
76
3.2.3
Reversible Reactions
80
Rates and the Reaction Rate Constant
83
3.3.1
The Rate Constant k
83
3.3.2
The Arrhenius Plot
90
Present Status of Our Approach to Reactor Sizing and Design
93
STOICHIOMETRY
Batch Systems
107
4.1.1
Batch Concentrations for the Generic Reaction,
Equation (2-2)
109
Flow Systems
113
4.2.1
Equations for Concentrations in Flow Systems
4.2.2
Liquid-Phase Concentrations
114
4.2.3
Gas-Phase Concentrations
115
Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium Conversion
126
105
114
ISOTHERMAL REACTOR DESIGN: CONVERSION
Design Structure for Isothermal Reactors
140
Batch Reactors (BRs)
144
5.2.1
Batch Reaction Times
145
Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs)
152
5.3.1
A Single CSTR
152
5.3.2
CSTRs in Series
155
Tubular Reactors
162
Pressure Drop in Reactors
169
5.5.1
Pressure Drop and the Rate Law
169
5.5.2
Flow Through a Packed Bed
170
5.5.3
Pressure Drop in Pipes
174
5.5.4
Analytical Solution for Reaction with Pressure Drop
5.5.5
Robert the Worrier Wonders: What If…
181
Synthesizing the Design of a Chemical Plant
190
139
177
ix
Contents
CHAPTER 6
ISOTHERMAL REACTOR DESIGN:
MOLES AND MOLAR FLOW RATES
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
CHAPTER 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
CHAPTER 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
The Molar Flow Rate Balance Algorithm
208
Mole Balances on CSTRs, PFRs, PBRs, and Batch Reactors
6.2.1
Liquid Phase
208
6.2.2
Gas Phase
210
Application of the PFR Molar Flow Rate Algorithm to a
Microreactor
212
Membrane Reactors
217
Unsteady-State Operation of Stirred Reactors
225
Semibatch Reactors
227
6.6.1
Motivation for Using a Semibatch Reactor
227
6.6.2
Semibatch Reactor Mole Balances
227
207
208
COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF RATE DATA
243
The Algorithm for Data Analysis
244
Determining the Reaction Order for Each of Two Reactants Using the
Method of Excess
246
Integral Method
247
Differential Method of Analysis
251
7.4.1
Graphical Differentiation Method
252
7.4.2
Numerical Method
252
7.4.3
Finding the Rate-Law Parameters
253
Nonlinear Regression
258
Reaction-Rate Data from Differential Reactors
264
Experimental Planning
271
MULTIPLE REACTIONS
Definitions
280
8.1.1
Types of Reactions
280
8.1.2
Selectivity
281
8.1.3
Yield
282
Algorithm for Multiple Reactions
282
8.2.1
Modifications to the Chapter 6 CRE Algorithm for Multiple
Reactions
284
Parallel Reactions
285
8.3.1
Selectivity
285
8.3.2
Maximizing the Desired Product for One Reactant
285
8.3.3
Reactor Selection and Operating Conditions
291
Reactions in Series
294
279
x
Contents
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
CHAPTER 9
Complex Reactions
304
8.5.1
Complex Gas-Phase Reactions in a PBR
304
8.5.2
Complex Liquid-Phase Reactions in a CSTR
307
8.5.3
Complex Liquid-Phase Reactions in a Semibatch
Reactor
310
Membrane Reactors to Improve Selectivity
in Multiple Reactions
312
Sorting It All Out
317
The Fun Part
317
REACTION MECHANISMS, PATHWAYS, BIOREACTIONS,
AND BIOREACTORS
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
CHAPTER 10
10.1
10.2
333
Active Intermediates and Nonelementary Rate Laws
334
9.1.1
Pseudo-Steady-State Hypothesis (PSSH)
335
9.1.2
Why Is the Rate Law First Order?
338
9.1.3
Searching for a Mechanism
339
9.1.4
Chain Reactions
343
Enzymatic Reaction Fundamentals
343
9.2.1
Enzyme–Substrate Complex
344
9.2.2
Mechanisms
346
9.2.3
Michaelis–Menten Equation
348
9.2.4
Batch-Reactor Calculations for Enzyme Reactions
354
Inhibition of Enzyme Reactions
356
9.3.1
Competitive Inhibition
357
9.3.2
Uncompetitive Inhibition
359
9.3.3
Noncompetitive Inhibition (Mixed Inhibition)
361
9.3.4
Substrate Inhibition
363
Bioreactors and Biosynthesis
364
9.4.1
Cell Growth
368
9.4.2
Rate Laws
369
9.4.3
Stoichiometry
371
9.4.4
Mass Balances
377
9.4.5
Chemostats
381
9.4.6
CSTR Bioreactor Operation
381
9.4.7
Wash-Out
383
CATALYSIS AND CATALYTIC REACTORS
Catalysts
399
10.1.1 Definitions
400
10.1.2 Catalyst Properties
401
10.1.3 Catalytic Gas-Solid Interactions
403
10.1.4 Classification of Catalysts
404
Steps in a Catalytic Reaction
405
10.2.1 Step 1 Overview: Diffusion from the Bulk to the External
Surface of the Catalyst
408
10.2.2 Step 2 Overview: Internal Diffusion
409
399
xi
Contents
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
CHAPTER 11
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
10.2.3 Adsorption Isotherms
410
10.2.4 Surface Reaction
416
10.2.5 Desorption
418
10.2.6 The Rate-Limiting Step
419
Synthesizing a Rate Law, Mechanism, and Rate-Limiting Step
421
10.3.1 Is the Adsorption of Cumene Rate-Limiting?
424
10.3.2 Is the Surface Reaction Rate-Limiting?
427
10.3.3 Is the Desorption of Benzene Rate-Limiting?
429
10.3.4 Summary of the Cumene Decomposition
430
10.3.5 Reforming Catalysts
431
10.3.6 Rate Laws Derived from the Pseudo-SteadyState Hypothesis (PSSH)
435
10.3.7 Temperature Dependence of the Rate Law
436
Heterogeneous Data Analysis for Reactor Design
436
10.4.1 Deducing a Rate Law from the Experimental Data
438
10.4.2 Finding a Mechanism Consistent with Experimental
Observations
439
10.4.3 Evaluation of the Rate-Law Parameters
440
10.4.4 Reactor Design
443
Reaction Engineering in Microelectronic Fabrication
446
10.5.1 Overview
446
10.5.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
448
Model Discrimination
451
Catalyst Deactivation
454
10.7.1 Types of Catalyst Deactivation
456
10.7.2 Reactors That Can Be Used to Help Offset Catalyst
Decay
465
10.7.3 Temperature–Time Trajectories
465
10.7.4 Moving-Bed Reactors
467
10.7.5 Straight-Through Transport Reactors (STTR)
472
NONISOTHERMAL REACTOR DESIGN–THE STEADYSTATE ENERGY BALANCE AND ADIABATIC
PFR APPLICATIONS
Rationale
494
The Energy Balance
495
11.2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics
495
11.2.2 Evaluating the Work Term
496
11.2.3 Overview of Energy Balances
498
The User-Friendly Energy Balance Equations
502
11.3.1 Dissecting the Steady-State Molar Flow Rates
to Obtain the Heat of Reaction
502
11.3.2 Dissecting the Enthalpies
504
11.3.3 Relating H Rx (T), HRx (T R), and C P
505
Adiabatic Operation
508
11.4.1 Adiabatic Energy Balance
508
11.4.2 Adiabatic Tubular Reactor
509
493
xii
Contents
11.5
11.6
11.7
CHAPTER 12
Adiabatic Equilibrium Conversion
518
11.5.1 Equilibrium Conversion
518
Reactor Staging
522
11.6.1 Reactor Staging with Interstage Cooling or Heating
11.6.2 Exothermic Reactions
523
11.6.3 Endothermic Reactions
523
Optimum Feed Temperature
526
522
STEADY-STATE NONISOTHERMAL REACTOR
DESIGN—FLOW REACTORS WITH HEAT EXCHANGE
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
CHAPTER 13
13.1
13.2
539
Steady-State Tubular Reactor with Heat Exchange
540
12.1.1 Deriving the Energy Balance for a PFR
540
12.1.2 Applying the Algorithm to Flow Reactors with Heat
Exchange
542
Balance on the Heat-Transfer Fluid
543
12.2.1 Co-current Flow
543
12.2.2 Countercurrent Flow
544
Algorithm for PFR/PBR Design with Heat Effects
545
12.3.1 Applying the Algorithm to an Exothermic Reaction
548
12.3.2 Applying the Algorithm to an Endothermic Reaction
555
CSTR with Heat Effects
564
12.4.1 Heat Added to the Reactor, Q̇
564
Multiple Steady States (MSS)
574
12.5.1 Heat-Removed Term, R(T )
575
12.5.2 Heat-Generated Term, G(T )
576
12.5.3 Ignition-Extinction Curve
578
Nonisothermal Multiple Chemical Reactions
581
12.6.1 Energy Balance for Multiple Reactions in Plug-Flow
Reactors
581
12.6.2 Parallel Reactions in a PFR
582
12.6.3 Energy Balance for Multiple Reactions in a CSTR
585
12.6.4 Series Reactions in a CSTR
585
12.6.5 Complex Reactions in a PFR
588
Radial and Axial Variations in a Tubular Reactor
595
12.7.1 Molar Flux
596
12.7.2 Energy Flux
597
12.7.3 Energy Balance
598
Safety
603
UNSTEADY-STATE NONISOTHERMAL REACTOR DESIGN
Unsteady-State Energy Balance
630
Energy Balance on Batch Reactors
632
13.2.1 Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor
633
13.2.2 Case History of a Batch Reactor with Interrupted Isothermal
Operation Causing a Runaway Reaction
640
629
xiii
Contents
13.3
13.4
13.5
CHAPTER 14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
CHAPTER 15
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
Semibatch Reactors with a Heat Exchanger
Unsteady Operation of a CSTR
651
13.4.1 Startup
651
Nonisothermal Multiple Reactions
656
646
MASS TRANSFER LIMITATIONS IN REACTING SYSTEMS
679
Diffusion Fundamentals
680
14.1.1 Definitions
681
14.1.2 Molar Flux
682
14.1.3 Fick’s First Law
683
Binary Diffusion
684
14.2.1 Evaluating the Molar Flux
684
14.2.2 Diffusion and Convective Transport
685
14.2.3 Boundary Conditions
685
14.2.4 Temperature and Pressure Dependence of DAB
686
14.2.5 Steps in Modeling Diffusion without Reaction
687
14.2.6 Modeling Diffusion with Chemical Reaction
687
Diffusion Through a Stagnant Film
688
The Mass Transfer Coefficient
690
14.4.1 Correlations for the Mass Transfer Coefficient
690
14.4.2 Mass Transfer to a Single Particle
693
14.4.3 Mass Transfer–Limited Reactions in Packed Beds
697
14.4.4 Robert the Worrier
700
What If . . . ? (Parameter Sensitivity)
705
DIFFUSION AND REACTION
Diffusion and Reactions in Homogeneous Systems
720
Diffusion and Reactions in Spherical Catalyst Pellets
720
15.2.1 Effective Diffusivity
721
15.2.2 Derivation of the Differential Equation Describing Diffusion
and Reaction in a Single Catalyst Pellet
723
15.2.3 Writing the Diffusion with the Catalytic Reaction Equation in
Dimensionless Form
726
15.2.4 Solution to the Differential Equation for a First-Order
Reaction
729
The Internal Effectiveness Factor
730
15.3.1 Isothermal First-Order Catalytic Reactions
730
15.3.2 Effectiveness Factors with Volume Change with
Reaction
733
15.3.3 Isothermal Reactors Other Than First Order
733
15.3.4 Weisz–Prater Criterion for Internal Diffusion
734
Falsified Kinetics
737
Overall Effectiveness Factor
739
Estimation of Diffusion- and Reaction-Limited Regimes
743
15.6.1 Mears Criterion for External Diffusion Limitations
743
719
xiv
Contents
15.7
15.8
15.9
Mass Transfer and Reaction in a Packed Bed
744
Determination of Limiting Situations from Reaction-Rate Data
Multiphase Reactors in the Professional Reference Shelf
751
15.9.1 Slurry Reactors
752
15.9.2 Trickle Bed Reactors
752
15.10 Fluidized Bed Reactors
753
15.11 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
753
CHAPTER 16
RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTIONS OF
CHEMICAL REACTORS
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
CHAPTER 17
750
General Considerations
767
16.1.1 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Function
769
Measurement of the RTD
770
16.2.1 Pulse Input Experiment
770
16.2.2 Step Tracer Experiment
775
Characteristics of the RTD
777
16.3.1 Integral Relationships
777
16.3.2 Mean Residence Time
778
16.3.3 Other Moments of the RTD
778
16.3.4 Normalized RTD Function, E()
782
16.3.5 Internal-Age Distribution, I()
783
RTD in Ideal Reactors
784
16.4.1 RTDs in Batch and Plug-Flow Reactors
784
16.4.2 Single-CSTR RTD
785
16.4.3 Laminar-Flow Reactor (LFR)
786
PFR/CSTR Series RTD
789
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
793
16.6.1 General Comments
793
16.6.2 Simple Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Using the RTD for
Ideal Reactors
794
PREDICTING CONVERSION DIRECTLY FROM THE
RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
767
Modeling Nonideal Reactors Using the RTD
808
17.1.1 Modeling and Mixing Overview
808
17.1.2 Mixing
808
Zero-Adjustable-Parameter Models
810
17.2.1 Segregation Model
810
17.2.2 Maximum Mixedness Model
820
Using Software Packages
827
17.3.1 Comparing Segregation and Maximum Mixedness
Predictions
829
RTD and Multiple Reactions
830
17.4.1 Segregation Model
830
17.4.2 Maximum Mixedness
831
807
xv
Contents
CHAPTER 18
MODELS FOR NONIDEAL REACTORS
845
18.1
Some Guidelines for Developing Models
846
18.1.1 One-Parameter Models
847
18.1.2 Two-Parameter Models
848
18.2 The Tanks-in-Series (T-I-S) One-Parameter Model
848
18.2.1 Developing the E-Curve for the T-I-S Model
849
18.2.2 Calculating Conversion for the T-I-S Model
851
18.2.3 Tanks-in-Series versus Segregation for a First-Order
Reaction
852
18.3 Dispersion One-Parameter Model
852
18.4 Flow, Reaction, and Dispersion
854
18.4.1 Balance Equations
854
18.4.2 Boundary Conditions
855
18.4.3 Finding Da and the Peclet Number
858
18.4.4 Dispersion in a Tubular Reactor with Laminar Flow
858
18.4.5 Correlations for Da
860
18.4.6 Experimental Determination of Da
862
18.5 Tanks-in-Series Model versus Dispersion Model
869
18.6 Numerical Solutions to Flows with Dispersion and Reaction
870
18.7 Two-Parameter Models—Modeling Real Reactors with Combinations of
Ideal Reactors
871
18.7.1 Real CSTR Modeled Using Bypassing and Dead Space
872
18.7.2 Real CSTR Modeled as Two CSTRs with Interchange
878
18.8 Use of Software Packages to Determine the Model Parameters
880
18.9 Other Models of Nonideal Reactors Using CSTRs and PFRs
882
18.10 Applications to Pharmacokinetic Modeling
883
APPENDIX A
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES
Useful Integrals in Reactor Design
897
Equal-Area Graphical Differentiation
898
Solutions to Differential Equations
900
A.3.A
First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations
A.3.B
Coupled Differential Equations
900
A.3.C
Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations
Numerical Evaluation of Integrals
901
Semilog Graphs
903
Software Packages
903
897
900
901
APPENDIX B
IDEAL GAS CONSTANT AND CONVERSION FACTORS
905
APPENDIX C
THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS INVOLVING
THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT
909
xvi
Contents
APPENDIX D
SOFTWARE PACKAGES
D.1
915
Polymath
915
D.1.A
About Polymath
915
D.1.B
Polymath Tutorials
916
MATLAB
916
Aspen
916
COMSOL Multiphysics
917
D.2
D.3
D.4
APPENDIX E
RATE LAW DATA
919
APPENDIX F
NOMENCLATURE
921
APPENDIX G
OPEN-ENDED PROBLEMS
925
G.1
G.2
G.3
G.4
G.5
G.6
G.7
G.8
G.9
G.10
APPENDIX H
APPENDIX I
I.1
I.2
I.3
INDEX
Design of Reaction Engineering Experiment
Effective Lubricant Design
925
Peach Bottom Nuclear Reactor
925
Underground Wet Oxidation
926
Hydrodesulfurization Reactor Design
926
Continuous Bioprocessing
926
Methanol Synthesis
926
Cajun Seafood Gumbo
926
Alcohol Metabolism
927
Methanol Poisoning
928
925
USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY
SOFTWARE PACKAGES
929
HOW TO USE THE CRE WEB RESOURCES
931
CRE Web Resources Components
931
How the Web Can Help Your Learning Style
933
I.2.1
Global vs. Sequential Learners
933
I.2.2
Active vs. Reflective Learners
934
Navigation
934
937
Preface
The man who has ceased to learn ought not to be allowed
to wander around loose in these dangerous days.
M. M. Coady
A. Who Is the Intended Audience?
This book and interactive Web site is intended for use as both an undergraduate-level and a graduate-level text in chemical reaction engineering. The level
will depend on the choice of chapters, the Professional Reference Shelf (PRS)
material (from the companion Web site) to be covered, and the type and degree
of difficulty of problems assigned. It was written with today’s students in
mind. It provides instantaneous access to information; does not waste time on
extraneous details; cuts right to the point; uses more bullets to make information easier to access; and includes new, novel problems on chemical reaction
engineering (e.g., solar energy). It gives more emphasis to chemical reactor
safety (Chapters 12 and 13) and alternative energy sources—solar (Chapters 3,
8, and 10) and biofuel production (Chapter 9). The graduate material on topics
such as effectiveness factors, non-ideal reactors, and residence time distribution is i…
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We use several checkers to make sure that all papers you receive are plagiarism-free. Our editors carefully go through all in-text citations. We also promise full confidentiality in all our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

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Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

You are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper. Our academic experts will gladly help you with essays, case studies, research papers and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission help & business writing

You can be positive that we will be here 24/7 to help you get accepted to the Master’s program at the TOP-universities or help you get a well-paid position.

Reviews

Editing your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you submit a well-structured and organized paper just on time. We will ensure that your final paper is of the highest quality and absolutely free of mistakes.

Reviews

Revising your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you with unlimited number of revisions in case you need any customization of your academic papers