Sociology Assignment | Online Homework Help

Write a Essay that analyzes and engages with the assigned readings for the week. Think analytically and critically about the material presented and make clear references to readings to shed light on specific concepts and theories. You will be graded on the ability to summarize the readings in your own words, to analyze and think critically about the material, as well as for grammar and spelling. You must clearly cite and reference course readings and materials in your discussion posts using proper APA format and you must include 1-2 questions for discussion for your classmates to consider. Read Chapters 9 (Williams-Forson), 15 (Slocum), and 18 (Bordo) of the course text attached.

Why Food? Why Culture? Why Now?
Introduction to the Third Edition
Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik
In 1997, when we proposed the fi rst Food and Culture Reader , we had to persuade
Routledge of the importance of publishing it. In 2012, Routledge had to persuade us
to undertake the arduous task of reviewing the incredibly expanded literature to
produce a third edition. We hope that the current selection of articles gives a snapshot
of how the fi eld has grown and developed from its early foundations. Cultural
anthropology remains the central discipline guiding this fi eld. Food and nutritional
anthropology in particular, and food studies generally, manage to rise above the
dualisms that threaten to segment most fi elds of study. This fi eld resists separating
biological from cultural, individual from society, and local from global culture, but
rather struggles with their entanglements. Food and culture studies have somehow
made interdisciplinarity workable. Sometimes co-opting, more often embracing the
history and geography of food as part of the holistic emphasis of anthropology, food
studies have become increasingly sophisticated theoretically. We hope these papers
reveal the roots of contemporary issues in food studies, and we acknowledge our bias
towards particular subjects that most engage our interest.
Scholarship in food studies has expanded remarkably over the past decade. A quick
and by no means exhaustive bibliographic search turns up scores of recent food
books in fi elds as diverse as philosophy (Heldke 2003 , Kaplan 2012 , Korsmeyer
2002 ), psychology (Conner and Armitage 2002 , Ogden 2010 ), geography (Carney
2001, 2010, Friedberg 2009 , Guthman 2011 , Yasmeen 2006 ), fi lm studies (Bower
2004 , Ferry 2003 , Keller 2006 ) 1 , and architecture (Franck 2003 , Horwitz and Singley
2006 ), not to mention the vast literature in food’s traditional fi elds of nutrition, home
economics, and agriculture. Countless new texts abound on food in literature—from
the study of eating and being eaten in children’s literature (Daniel 2006 ) to food symbols
in early modern American fi ction (Appelbaum 2006 ) and classical Arab literature
(Van Gelder 2000 ), to post-Freudian analysis of literary orality (Skubal 2002 ).
In its more longstanding disciplinary homes, food continues to fascinate, so we
fi nd texts exploring the history of food from the Renaissance banquet (Albala 2007a )
through the broad sweep of time (Clafl in and Scholliers 2012 , Parasecoli and
Scholliers 2012 ) to the future of food (Belasco 2006 ); from the United States
(Williams-Forson 2006 ) to Italy (Capatti and Montanari 2003 , Montanari 2010 ) and
all of Europe (Flandrin and Montanari 1999); to the history of many specifi c foods
including tomatoes (Gentilcore 2010 ), beans (Albala 2007b ), turkey (Smith 2006 ),
2 Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik
chocolate (Coe and Coe 2000 ), salt (Kurlansky 2003 ), and spices (Turner 2004 ).
Sociologists have not hesitated to stir the food studies pot (Ray 2004 ), and anthropologists
have continued to produce work on topics as varied as hunger in Africa
(Flynn 2005), children’s eating in China (Jing 2000 ), the global trade in lamb fl aps
(Gewertz and Errington 2010 ), food and memory in Greece (Sutton 2001 ), the globalization
of milk (Wiley 2010 ), Japan’s largest fi sh market (Bestor 2004 ), the culture
of restaurants (Beriss and Sutton 2007 ), and the role of cooking in human evolution
(Wrangham 2010).
These examples provide some measure of the many texts that have been published
in the last decade. Why has the fi eld exploded so? We would like to suggest several
reasons for this explosion. Without a doubt, feminism and women’s studies have
contributed to the growth of food studies by legitimizing a domain of human
behavior so heavily associated with women over time and across cultures. A second
reason is the politicization of food and the expansion of social movements linked to
food. This has created an increased awareness of the links between consumption
and production, beginning with books on food and agriculture (e.g. Guthman 2004 ,
Magdoff et al. 2000 ) as well as more interdisciplinary work on food politics (Guthman
2011 , Nestle 2003 , Patel 2007 , Williams-Forson and Counihan 2012 ). A third reason
is that once food became a legitimate topic of scholarly research, its novelty, richness,
and scope provided limitless grist for the scholarly mill, as food links body and
soul, self and other, the personal and the political, the material and the symbolic.
Moreover, as food shifts from being local and known, to being global and unknown,
it has been transformed into a potential symbol of fear and anxiety (Ferrieres 2005 ),
as well as of morality (Pojman 2011 , Singer and Mason 2006 , Telfer 2005 ).
Scholars have found food a powerful lens of analysis and written insightful
books about a range of compelling contemporary issues: diaspora and immigration
(Gabaccia 1998 , Ray 2004 , Ray and Srinivas 2012 ); nationalism, globalization, and
local manifestations (Barndt 1999 , Inglis and Gimlin 2010 , Wilk 2006a , 2006b);
culinary tourism (Long 2003 ); gender and race-ethnic identity (Abarca 2006,
Williams-Forson 2006 ); social justice and human rights (Kent 2007 , Wenche Barth
and Kracht 2005 ) 2 ; modernization and dietary change (Counihan 2004 , Watson
1997 ); food safety and contamination (Friedberg 2004, 2009, Nestle 2004 , Schwartz
2004 ); and taste perception (Howes 2005 , Korsmeyer 2002 , 2005). Many of these
subjects have important material dimensions, which have also been studied by
archaeologists, folklorists, and even designers, as food leaves its mark on the human
environment.
The explosion of the fi eld of food studies is also refl ected in new and continuing
interdisciplinary journals such as Agriculture and Human Valu es, Appetite , Culture
and Agriculture , The Digest , Food and Foodways , Food, Culture and Society ,
Gastronomica , The Anthropology of Food , and Nutritional Anthropology . Hundreds of
websites inform food professionals, researchers, and the general public. Groundbreaking
documentary fi lms such as Fast Food Nation , The Garden , Supersize Me ,
The Future of Food , The Real Dirt on Farmer John , King Corn , Farmageddon , and Two
Angry Moms have called attention to problems in our food system and efforts to
redress them. Food advocacy is refl ected in food movements that promote organic,
Introduction to the Third Edition 3
local, fairly traded, and slow food, revitalizing vegetarianism and freeganism (Van
Esterik 2005 ), and decrying what fast, processed food has done to our bodies and
communities. Of particular interest is how food-focused social movements interact
with one another, and with academic research (Belasco 2007 ).
The last few years have also seen a dramatic increase in popular books about food,
some by talented journalists such as Michael Pollan, and others by food faddists more
closely linked to the diet industry, the latter often relying on hearsay rather than
research. It is important that students understand that the papers in this reader
come from specifi c disciplinary perspectives and are based on sound research. We
hope that this Reader helps students acquire the critical skills to distinguish between
the different sources of information about food.
Given the vastness of the food studies repast, there is no way this book can offer up
a complete meal. Rather we envision it as an appetizer to introduce the fi eld to the
reader—a taste of the diverse array of scrumptious intellectual dishes that await
further pursuit. We have chosen articles that are high quality and that explore issues
of enduring importance written by some of the leading food studies scholars. “Write
a book with legs,” our editor urged us in 1997—and we did. But those legs have taken
food studies in exciting new directions in the last decade, and this revised Reader
refl ects these changes.
The third edition retains the classic papers refl ecting the foundations of food
studies, and provides an interdisciplinary collection of cutting-edge articles in the
social sciences that combine theory with ethnographic and historical data. We hope
our readers will fi nd this third edition engages even more deeply with both past and
present scholarship on food and culture.
From the fi rst reader, we retain the wise words of M.F.K. Fisher, and reaffi rm
that food touches everything and is the foundation of every economy, marking social
differences, boundaries, bonds, and contradictions—an endlessly evolving enactment
of gender, family, and community relationships. 3
Foundations
In rethinking and updating the “Foundations” section, we recognize the signifi cant
contributions these authors have made to food studies by introducing basic
defi nitions and conceptual tools used by later scholars. The papers we have retained
in this edition are considered classics and are fundamental for demonstrating the
history of food studies. While we continue to value the pioneering work by Bruch
(1979, 2001) and de Certeau (2011) which we included in earlier editions, we have
omitted them in this Reader to make room for other approaches and because new
editions have made their work easily accessible. Our selection demonstrates the
centrality of cultural anthropology to the development of the fi eld. 4 We begin with
Margaret Mead’s 1971 Redbook article on “Why Do We Overeat?”, in which she
explores the very contemporary problem of the relation between overindulgence
and guilt. This piece illustrates Mead’s commitment to making the insights of
anthropologists available to the public and we open with it as a tribute to Mead’s

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