Morphology of other languages

Morphology of other languages:


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Sierra Popoluca (9 points)

Analyze the following data from Sierra Popoluca, a Mixe-Zoquean language spoken in Veracruz State, Mexico.


miñpa                          ‘he comes’                               se:tpa                           ‘he returns’


miñum                         ‘he came’                                 se:tyahpa                      ‘they return’


miñyahpa                     ‘they come’                              se:tyahum                     ‘they returned’


miñyahum                    ‘they came’                              se:tpanam                     ‘he still returns’


miñumtyim                   ‘he also came’                          se:tpatyim                    ‘he also returns’


miñyahumtyim             ‘they also came’                       se:tyahpanam               ‘they still return’


Give the Sierra Popoluca morphemes for the following; remember that not all languages encode the same meanings as English. Hint: there is no morpheme for ‘he’ in this language.

  1. still _________________________
  2. they _________________________
  3. past tense _________________________
  4. also _________________________
  5. present tense _________________________



Give the Sierra Popoluca forms for the following:

  1. ‘they still come’ _________________________
  2. ‘he returned’ _________________________


Give the English translation for the following:

  1. se:tyahumtyim _________________________
  2. miñumnam _________________________









Tree Structure:

Pick two of the following five sentences and draw syntactic trees for them. Please provide your tree drawing on the additional piece of paper provided for you. (2 points each)

  1. The cow jumped over the moon.
  2. The boy enjoyed the movies.
  3. The dog chased after the mouse.
  4. Some people want more pictures.
  5. The child spilled milk.




  1. Explain 1) whether or not there is a specific ordering in adding morphemes, 2) if there is, what is the ordering. (1 point each)
  2. Unsystematic


  1. Reclassified



Morphology (Russian)


  1. Below is data that shows how to create an adverb from an adjective. What’s the morpheme for an adjective and adverb, based on these data? Provide in words what is the rule for this change (for example, how would you explain this to a friend)? Also, tell me what type of affix the morpheme for an adverb and adjective is and also whether it is derivational or inflectional. (1.5 points)


krasivyj            “good”                         krasivo             “well”

bystryj             “quick”                        bystro              “quickly”

smelyj              “brave”                        smelo               “bravely”







  1. Below is an example of the preposition “with” in Russian. Please tell me what the morpheme is. If there are more than one morpheme for “with” what are they. Is it a morpheme or are there several allomorphs? Explain your answer. Hint “with” is not a bound morpheme. (1.5 points)


s drugom          “with friend”                s trudom           “with difficulty”

so stenoj           “with wall”                   so svadboj        “with wedding”

s vnimaniem     “with attention”            so slovom        “with word”




Provide an example of a word that uses more than one word creation process to create a word. Name the 2 or more different word creation processes that are involved. (1 point)




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