IT Ethics Assignment | Online Homework Help

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Note: I have attached the Lessig’s book titled “Code”. to be used for this assignment. Instructions: Read pgs 120-137 from Lessig’s book titled “Code”. From the reading explain the basic elements of Lessig’s framework (Market, Law, Architecture, and Norms) in an organized fashion. Your final product should be two pages and is expected to be a 300 level paper. ENSURE you are using memo format for all of your writings minus the final research paper.

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This is a not a field where one learns by living in libraries. I have learned
everything I know from the conversations I have had, or watched, with an
extraordinary community of academics and activists, who have been struggling
over the last five years both to understand what cyberspace is and to
make it better. This community includes the scholars and writers I discuss in
the text, especially the lawyers Yochai Benkler, James Boyle, Mark Lemley,
David Post, and Pam Samuelson. I’ve also benefited greatly from conversations
with nonlawyers, especially Hal Abelson, John Perry Barlow, Todd Lapin,
Joseph Reagle, Paul Resnick, and DannyWeitzner. But perhaps more importantly,
I’ve benefited fromdiscussions with the activists, in particular the Center
for Democracy and Technology, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and
the American Civil Liberties Union. They have made the issues real, and they
have done much to defend at least some of the values that I think important.
This book would not have been written, however, but for a story by Julian
Dibbell, a conference organized by Henry J. Perritt, andmany arguments with
David Johnson. I am grateful to all three for what they have taught.
I began this project as a fellow at Harvard’s Program on Ethics and the
Professions. I am grateful to Dennis Thompson for his skeptical encouragement
that year. The Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law
School has made much of my research possible. I am grateful in particular to
Lillian andMyles Berkman for that support, and especially to the center’s codirector
and my sometime coteacher, Jonathan Zittrain, for his support and,
more important, friendship. I’ve dedicated this book to the other co-director
of the Berkman Center, Charlie Nesson, who has givenme the space and support
to do this work and a certain inspiration to push it differently.
But more significant than any of that support has been the patience, and
love, of the person to whom I’ve dedicated my life, Bettina Neuefeind. Her
love will seem crazy, and wonderful, for much more than a year.
preface to the first edition xvii
C O D E
O N E
c o d e i s l a w
ALMOST TWO DECADES AGO, IN THE SPRING OF 1989, COMMUNISM IN EUROPE
died—collapsed, like a tent, itsmain post removed. The end was not brought
by war or revolution. The end was exhaustion. A new political regime was
born in its place across Central and Eastern Europe, the beginnings of a new
political society.
For constitutionalists (like me), this was a heady time. I had graduated
from law school in 1989, and in 1991 I began teaching at the University of
Chicago.At that time, Chicago had a center devoted to the study of the emerging
democracies in Central and Eastern Europe. I was a part of that center.
Over the next five years I spentmore hours on airplanes, andmoremornings
drinking bad coffee, than I care to remember.
Eastern and Central Europe were filled with Americans telling former
Communists how they should govern. The advice was endless.And silly. Some
of these visitors literally sold translated constitutions to the emerging constitutional
republics; the rest had innumerable half-baked ideas about how the
new nations should be governed. These Americans came froma nation where
constitutionalism seemed to work, yet they had no clue why.
The Center’s mission, however, was not to advise.We knew too little to
guide. Our aim was to watch and gather data about the transitions and how
they progressed.We wanted to understand the change, not direct it.
What we saw was striking, if understandable. Those first moments after
communism’s collapse were filled with antigovernmental passion—a surge of
anger directed against the state and against state regulation. Leave us alone,
the people seemed to say. Let the market and nongovernmental organizations—
a new society—take government’s place. After generations of communism,
this reaction was completely understandable. Government was the
1
oppressor. What compromise could there be with the instrument of your
repression?
A certain kind of libertarianismseemed tomany to supportmuch in this
reaction. If themarket were to reign, and the government were kept out of the
way, freedom and prosperity would inevitably grow. Things would take care
of themselves. There was no need, and could be no place, for extensive regulation
by the state.
But things didn’t take care of themselves.Markets didn’t flourish.Governments
were crippled, and crippled governments are no elixir of freedom.
Power didn’t disappear—it shifted fromthe state tomafiosi, themselves often
created by the state. The need for traditional state functions—police, courts,
schools, health care—didn’t go away, and private interests didn’t emerge to fill
that need. Instead, the needs were simply unmet. Security evaporated.Amodern
if plodding anarchy replaced the bland communismof the previous three
generations: neon lights flashed advertisements for Nike; pensioners were
swindled out of their life savings by fraudulent stock deals; bankers weremurdered
in broad daylight on Moscow streets. One system of control had been
replaced by another. Neither was whatWestern libertarians would call “freedom.”
{TXB2}
About a decade ago, in the mid-1990s, just about the time when this postcommunist
euphoria was beginning to wane, there emerged in the West
another “new society,” to many just as exciting as the new societies promised
in post-communist Europe. This was the Internet, or as I’ll define a bit later,
“cyberspace.” First in universities and centers of research, and then throughout
society in general, cyberspace became a new target for libertarian utopianism.
Here freedom from the state would reign. If not in Moscow or Tblisi,
then in cyberspace would we find the ideal libertarian society.
The catalyst for this change was likewise unplanned. Born in a research
project in the Defense Department,1 cyberspace too arose fromthe unplanned
displacement of a certain architecture of control. The tolled, single-purpose
network of telephones was displaced by the untolled and multipurpose network
of packet-switched data.And thus the old one-to-many architectures of
publishing (

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