The behaviorist model does NOT include which of the following concepts?
According to Freud, the primitive psychic force that represents basic needs and drives, and upon which other personality factors are built, is called the
A child’s temperament is learned by watching his or her parents’ way of responding.
A child who gets overwhelmed easily is only trying to manipulate his or her parents.
Boundaries are a concept used in systems theory. Select the example that does NOT describe the concept of boundaries as used within systems theory.
a. The limits regarding how much an infant should be fed between meals in order to stay healthy
b. The definition of roles within an organization regarding who is to do what jobs
c. Physically, your skin provides a boundary between you as an independent, living system and the external environment
d. Characteristics of people that define who is in a group and who is not
Early caregiving stimulates brain development.
All of the below are developmental achievements that a 6-month old should be able to do, EXCEPT
a. Able to follow objects with his or her eyes
b. Able to show a preference for people over objects
c. Able to stand while holding on
d. Able to roll over
e. Enjoy gross motor activities such as running and kicking balls
The theorist who developed a model of the mind’s psychic structure is
a. John Bowlby
b. Jean Piaget
c. Erik Erikson
d. Sigmund Freud
Child development is affected by micro, mezzo, and macro factors. An example of a macro factor that can affect child development is
a. The parent’s divorce
b. The baby’s health at birth
c. The mother’s work schedule
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth developed attachment theory. They described four types of attachment classifications that can be observed in young children. Which of the following is NOT one of these four classifications?
a. insecure-disorganized attachment
b. Secure attachment
c. Insecure-avoidant attachment
d. Insecure-oppositional attachment
The wordless dialogue that occurs in infancy is only relevant for deaf children who need to communicate without words
Which of the following statements is false regarding brain development?
a. A child’s brain growth occurs most rapidly at age 6, when he or she begins school.
b. Brain development is most important during the first two years of life.
c. Parent/child caregiving experiences influence the wiring of the neurons in the brain.
d. Positive parent/infant interactions affect the development of the child’s brain.
Which of the following is NOT true? The early attachment relationship
a. Promotes the child’s capacity to make sense of his or her feelings and communicate these feelings with others
b. Serves as a base for exploration
c. Helps the child regulate his or her emotions and frustrations
d. Is responsible for the young child’s fine motor development
The definition of the “working model” is the
a. Positive effects of having had a role model of a working parent
b. Child’s resolution of ego and super-ego conflicts
c. Child’s mental internalization of his or her primary caregiver’s responsiveness or lack of responsiveness to the child’s needs
d. Child’s reaction to the mother’s absence due to her work schedule
Select which statement does NOT refer to the definition of “object constancy.”
a. A developmental milestone that Margaret Mahler’s theory describes as occurring from age 2 through adulthood.
b. An ability to remember that people or objects are consistent, trustworthy, and reliable, especially when they are out of your immediate field of vision.
c. The ability to understand that some things or people remain constant, even when we can’t see them or verify that they are “still there.”
d. A spiritual belief that young children learn from their parents.
Winning a large lottery would be considered which kind of stressful life event?
b. Internal emotional resource
Which of the following would be a coping mechanism?
a. Losing one’s job
b. Getting a very large job promotion
c. Taking tangible aid from a social service agency
d. Expressing positive and negative emotions
A good example of tangible social support would be
a. Being able to express positive and negative emotions
b. Going to see a therapist
c. Receiving food from a social service agency
d. Being taught a job skill by a social service agency
It is clear that one needs to see resilience as a phenomenon that is situated within a childhood set of experiences.
Secure attachment is an important factor in predicting resilience in children.
Which of the following is illustrative of a macro risk factor that can be disruptive to a child’s resilience?
a. Witnessing parental violence
b. Insecure attachment
c. Slow-to-warm-up temperament
d. Structural racism
Optimism can best be thought of as
a. An example of internal resources that can protect one
b. An adaptive coping mechanism
c. An illustration of cognitive social support
d. Part of one’s social network
Resilience can best be understood by looking at the relative relationship of promotive and risk factors that the child encounters within his or her immediate family.
Adolescence is best understood as a
a. Reproductive imperative
c. Cultural concept
d. Biological event\
Sex characteristics that are tied directly to sex organs and reproduction are known as
Individuals who fall into Marcia’s _______ phase don’t experience an identity crisis; they glide into adulthood without experiencing much turbulence or anxiety.
c. role diffusion
d. identity achievement
In the ___________ stage of Kohlberg’s model of moral development, rules are obeyed in order to receive rewards and, often, favors are exchanged.
b. social justice
c. brute authority
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development describes ____ levels.
Sex refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with being female or male.
The social construction of gender examines the structure of the gendered social order as a whole and the processes that construct and maintain it.
The term intersex describes a person born with fully formed ovaries and fully formed testes.
The maturation of the brain takes place until one is 35 and leads to more impulsive behavior in women.
Erikson hypothesized that individuals go through a set of stages tied to
a. Genital libido stages
b. Psychosocial stages
c. Psychosexual stages
d. Insecure attachment stages
Kohlberg argued that moral decision-making occurred in children between the ages of 4 and 7.
Transgender refers to the situation where the body is at odds with one’s sense of identity, whereas cisgender refers to the situation where one’s body and sense of self are unified.
The sense that one feels different from others in late childhood and is the basis for later awareness of one’s same sex attraction is
a. Identity tolerance
b. Identity confusion
c. Psychosocial identity
d. Identity pride
Sexual orientation refers to the subjective feeling of one’s internal sense of gender.
Gilligan criticized the Kohlberg model of moral development by saying that women would be rated at a lower stage of moral development than men due to their “caring perspective.”
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