Protection of Human Subjects in Research

Paper instructions

You must use the template provided in the course, and include the entire question prior to your response. The template will expand to accommodate your responses. • Use the same research study that you selected… Please look at the previous attached paper to piggy back off. thank you

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6. Protection of Human Subjects in Research
a. Do the researchers indicate that they took steps to protect the human subjects that were a part of their study? Identify what steps they took and how they describe their application to their research study. Explain why this is necessary/required (I need to “hear” that you understand the meaning, importance and ethical necessity of these measures in your response).

7. Population, Sample, and Setting
Important Note: No matter what the researchers themselves tell you, do not be fooled into thinking that the sample is the population! This is a common misconception in research studies! Remember, the population is the complete set of persons or things possessing the characteristics that the researchers want to study/want to infer their results to. At the end of the study (in the Discussion, Implications, Limitations sections) researchers discuss who their results are being inferred to or generalized to: For example, all smokers? All overweight teenagers. These are often much different from the limited group they sampled: i.e., a military base, hospitals in another country, etc. It is a very good idea to read these sections before determining WHO or WHAT the population is for this study. You might be very surprised! Still confused? Check this short video out:

7a.. Identify the POPULATION for this study:

b. Specifically, how was the SAMPLE selected from this population? Exactly how did they select the actual participants – what was the process? (i.e., were there inclusion and exclusion criteria; how did they recruit the sample and determine who would become part of the study, or who would be excluded?)

c. How large was the sample? Tell me the exact number that actually participated in the study (just give me ONE number here):

d. In your opinion, does the sample “represent” the population for this study? (i.e., is the sample similar to the overall population that the researchers might want to infer the results to?) Why or Why Not? Explain your answer:

e. Where did this study take place (there may be multiple locations, i.e., Laboratory, clinic, school, other):

8. Data collection INSTRUMENT
Data are collected so that researchers can measure the impact that the IV has had on the DV. Instruments are used to collect these data. Instruments may include surveys, scales, telephones, questionnaires, interviews, lab tests, etc.? Review carefully – remember instruments used may be more than things like thermometers, scales, etc.
a. What specific instrument/s was/were used to COLLECT DATA in this study? (I am looking for the instrument/s, not the data.). For example, what did the researchers use to measure/collect data for the study outcome (DV)?

b. How did the researchers describe their data collection INSTRUMENT/s and how they used it/them? Be specific.

c. Using definitions and descriptions of RELIABILITY (inter/intraobserver reliability) presented in the text and on the content pages, describe what steps were taken to assure that the data collected in this study are reliable? (i.e., Were the observers calibrated? Did they standardize their procedures? Was their data collection instrument calibrated? Specifically, describe everything you see that suggests that the researchers tried to collect reliable data by taking steps to improve inter/intraobserver reliability). Explain your answer thoroughly:

9. Data analysis. Remember, data analysis procedures are different from data collection instruments/tools! Review the textbook and content pages on data and statistics before responding. Additionally, for a quick reminder of difference between descriptive and inferential statistics, check out these videos: OR
a. Define descriptive statistics and identify/name the DESCRIPTIVE statistics used to organize, describe and summarize data in this study

b. Define inferential statistics and identify/name the INFERENTIAL statistics used to infer results to the population.

c. Google the name of ONE of the Inferential statistical tests mentioned in your research study. What does your source say about this inferential test? Why do you think your authors chose this inferential test for their study (think about the Levels of Measurement for example)? Please explain. Please provide a link to your findings and do not forget to cite the information and write a reference page citation on this source, as well. (Note: the researchers may note that they used particular software to analyze the data, such as SAS, SPSS, Stata, etc. These are NOT descriptive or inferential statistics; they are software packages that can perform analysis of the data – for example, they can be programed to run Chi Square, T-Tests, ANOVAs, and more advanced analyses).

10. Conclusions/implications/limitations
a. In light of this research experiment’s methods, what do you think is the major strength of this study? Please support your response thoroughly. This question refers to the study methods, not the purpose or outcome of the study.

b. In YOUR opinion what is/are the study’s major limitation/s? Please support your response thoroughly. Again, this question is related to the study design and methods – not the outcomes for the study.

c. Review the Acknowledgment section, or any area of your study that acknowledges funding sources, or other contributions. As you review, think about the possibility of “funding bias” or “sponsorship bias” (i.e., might the study outcomes support the interests of, or favor the funders or sponsors of the research in some way?).
Define bias and indicate whether the funding source/s listed in this research study suggest that the study’s findings may be biased based upon the funding source or sponsor of the study? Please defend your answer thoroughly and let me hear that you understand the research concept of bias in your response!

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